Plate-tectonic Evolution and Paleogeography of the Circum-Carpathian Region
Jan Golonka, Lisa Gahagan, Michał Krobicki, Frantisek Marko, Nestor Oszczypko, Andrzej Ślączka, 2006. "Plate-tectonic Evolution and Paleogeography of the Circum-Carpathian Region", The Carpathians and Their Foreland: Geology and Hydrocarbon Resources, Jan Golonka, Frank J. Picha
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Sixteen time interval maps were constructed that depict the latest Precambrian to Neogene plate-tectonic configuration, paleogeography, and lithofacies of the circum-Carpathian area. The plate-tectonic model used was based on PLATES and PALEOMAP software.
The supercontinent Pannotia was assembled during the latest Precambrian as a result of the Pan-African and Cadomian orogenies. All Precambrian terranes in the circum-Carpathian realm belonged to the supercontinent Pannotia, which, during the latest Precambrian–earliest Cambrian, was divided into Gondwana, Laurentia, and Baltica. The split of Gondwana during the Paleozoic caused the origin of the Avalonian and then Gothic terranes. The subsequent collision of these terranes with Baltica was expressed in the Caledonian and Hercynian orogenies. The terrane collision was followed by the collision between Gondwana and the amalgamation of Baltica and Laurentia known as Laurussia. The basement of most of the plates, which was an important factor in the Mesozoic–Cenozoic evolution of the circum-Carpathian area, was formed during the late Paleozoic collisional events. The older Cadomian and Caledonian basement elements experienced Hercynian tectonothermal overprint.
The Mesozoic rifting events resulted in the origin of oceanic-type basins like Meliata and Pieniny along the northern margin of the Tethys. The separation of Eurasia from Gondwana resulted in the formation of the Ligurian–Penninic–Pieniny Ocean as a continuation of the Central Atlantic Ocean and as part of the Pangean breakup tectonic system. During the Late Jurassic–Early Cretaceous, the Outer Carpathian rift developed.
Copyright ©2006. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists.
The latest Cretaceous–earliest Paleocene was the time of the closure of the Pieniny Ocean. The Adria–Alcapa terranes continued their northward movement during the Eocene–early Miocene. Their oblique collision with the North European plate led to the development of the accretionary wedge of the Outer Carpathians and foreland basin. The northward movement of the Alpine segment of the Carpathian–Alpine orogen has been stopped because of the collision with the Bohemian Massif. At the same time, the extruded Carpatho-Pannonian units were pushed to the open space toward the bay of weak crust filled up by the Outer Carpathian flysch sediments. The separation of the Carpatho-Pannonian segment from the Alpine one and its propagation to the north were related to the development of the north–south dextral strike-slip faults. The formation of the Western Carpathian thrusts was completed by the Miocene. The thrust front was still progressing eastward in the Eastern Carpathians. The Carpathian loop, including the Pieniny Klippen structure, was formed. The Neogene evolution of the Carpathians resulted also in the formation of the genetically different sedimentary basins. The various basins were formed because of the lithospheric extension, flexure, and strike-slip-related processes.