Channelized Lobe and Sheet Sandstones of the Upper Kaza Group Basin-floor Turbidite System, Castle Creek South, Windermere Supergroup, British Columbia, Canada
Lori Meyer, Gerald M. Ross, 2008. "Channelized Lobe and Sheet Sandstones of the Upper Kaza Group Basin-floor Turbidite System, Castle Creek South, Windermere Supergroup, British Columbia, Canada", Atlas of Deep-Water Outcrops, Tor H. Nilsen, Roger D. Shew, Gary S. Steffens, Joseph R. J. Studlick
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Unconfined, sand-rich, basin-floor submarine fan deposits have been identified in the Upper Kaza Group of the Windermere Supergroup and are well exposed at the Castle Creek locality, British Columbia, Canada (Figure 1). Regional time slices through the Upper Kaza Group are interpreted to indicate a distal-basin-floor setting for the Castle Creek study area. Correlative strata, becoming more proximal to the continental slope over approximately 300 km (186 mi) in a southeast direction occur at Lake Louise, Alberta (Figure 1A).
The distribution of facies (Figures 3, 4) has led to a threefold subdivision of the ~600-m (~1968-ft)-thick section which displays an upward decrease in the percentage of sandstones from 67.1% to 60.2% to 58.5%, respectively. This overall decrease in sandstone upwards is associated with a general thinning- and fining-upward trend at the scale of the outcrop. The vertical pattern is interpreted to reflect a change from an axial zone of sandstone deposition to an off-axis area with less sandstone and more mudstone or alternatively, an overall backstepping of the basin-floor-fan system.
The lower Upper Kaza is characterized by amalgamated medium- to coarse-grained sandstone turbidites with scoured contacts. Lateral changes in sandstone to mudstone and character of outcrop gamma-ray profiles are interpreted as a change from a channelized lobe-interior to lobe-margin (lobe-fringe to interlobe). The presence of significant bypass facies (mudstone breccias and medium-scale cross-stratified sandstone) and scour surfaces differentiate the middle Upper Kaza from the lower Upper Kaza and mark a change to sediment bypass and scouring
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Tor H. Nilsen, a red-haired Scandinavian who stood more than six feet tall, died October 9, 2005, at his San Carlos, California, home. This was after a valiant five-year fight with melanoma cancer. He was 63. His ashes were scattered at his family plot in Norway in 2006.
He was born in New York City on November 29, 1941, to Mollie Abrahamson and Nils Marius Nilsen of Mandal, Norway, and was the first of their children to be born in the United States. After graduating from Brooklyn Tech, he earned his B.S. in geology from City College of New York in 1962. While there, his prowess on the basketball court impressed a scout from the New York Knicks, but Tor went on to graduate school and earned his M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in geology from the University of Wisconsin at Madison in 1964 and 1967, respectively. His M.S. thesis was a study of Precambrian metasedimentary deposits in the Lake Superior area, and his Ph.D. thesis was a study of Devonian alluvial-fan deposits of the Old Red Sandstone in western Norway.
Dr. Nilsen’s principal expertise was in depositional systems analysis, stratigraphic analysis, and the relationships among tectonics, eustasy, and sedimentation. He began his industry career in 1967 as a research geologist with the Shell Development Company in Houston, Texas, and Ventura, California, where he worked on the tectonics and sedimentation of Tertiary shelf systems of coastal California. He subsequently spent two years with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers as the Military