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Outcrop Summary
Outcrop 6: Taktik Megah Sawmill
LocationFor regional location, setting, and Executive Summary, see intoductory overview paper, chapter 13, this volume
Specifics50 km (31 mi) south of Kota Kinabalu on the east side of the Beaufort Road
Overall Outcrop Dimensions in Panel
Length50 m (164 ft) along strike
Thickness350 m (1150 ft)
Average Net-to-gross70%
Grain-size rangeFine- to coarse-grained sandstones
General Outcrop Description and Stacking Pattern(See overview paper, chapter 13, this volume, for abbreviation definitions and legend for logs.) This outcrop consists of fine-, medium- and coarse-grained sandstones, organized into multiple CU/TkU and FU/TnU sequences (S1–S5 and T1–T5), which are capped by a major slump unit (MTD1). The main sandstone units (S facies elements) are medium- to thick-bedded (up to 3 m [9 ft]), massive to horizontally-stratified (Figure 5), normally graded (Figure 9), and commonly contain dewatering structures (Figures 9, 10) and intercalated debrite beds (Figures 6, 7). Current ripples (Figure 11) and flutes (Figure 8) indicate a dominant northward paleoflow direction (Figure 8). Fine-grained T facies elements are mud-dominated with thin Ta to Tc beds. The CU/TkU and FU/TnU sequences are typically 5–10 m (16–33 ft) thick and often display gradual transitions (e.g., T2–S3–T3–S4–T4; Figure 2). Elsewhere, major sandstone bodies sit with sharp/planar to locally erosional bases (Figure 3; below logged section). The fluctuating nature of the vertical facies succession resembles those seen at Papar Highway, although these are thinner, Ta thinning-/fining-upward, multistory channel sandstones. channel fills are intercalated with minor thickening-/coarsening-upward channel margin deposits. A slump sheet with abundant carbonaceous material occurs at the top of the outcrop. Sand-rich fan sheet sandstones with localized erosion, are poorly organized, from thickening- to thinning-upward successions; beds up to 3 m (9.8 ft) thick of medium- to coarse-grained Ta–Tb–S3 massive sheet sandstones, with localized erosion, have pebbly sandstone base that thins and fines upward into very thin-bedded sandstone-shale. Poorly sorted, mass-transport deposits of shale-dominant debrites, and uncommon, folded thin- to medium-bedded sandstone cap the sequence.
Depositional Setting InterpretationThe multiple CU/TkU and FU/TnU sequences suggest deposition in a midfan environment, where deposition occurred in nonchannelized lobes and in shallow, braided-type channel systems. Vertical facies organization suggests frequent lateral migration of channel-lobe systems. Thicker sand bodies below the logged section may include larger channel-fill deposits (e.g., Figure 3).
Outcrop Summary
Outcrop 6: Taktik Megah Sawmill
LocationFor regional location, setting, and Executive Summary, see intoductory overview paper, chapter 13, this volume
Specifics50 km (31 mi) south of Kota Kinabalu on the east side of the Beaufort Road
Overall Outcrop Dimensions in Panel
Length50 m (164 ft) along strike
Thickness350 m (1150 ft)
Average Net-to-gross70%
Grain-size rangeFine- to coarse-grained sandstones
General Outcrop Description and Stacking Pattern(See overview paper, chapter 13, this volume, for abbreviation definitions and legend for logs.) This outcrop consists of fine-, medium- and coarse-grained sandstones, organized into multiple CU/TkU and FU/TnU sequences (S1–S5 and T1–T5), which are capped by a major slump unit (MTD1). The main sandstone units (S facies elements) are medium- to thick-bedded (up to 3 m [9 ft]), massive to horizontally-stratified (Figure 5), normally graded (Figure 9), and commonly contain dewatering structures (Figures 9, 10) and intercalated debrite beds (Figures 6, 7). Current ripples (Figure 11) and flutes (Figure 8) indicate a dominant northward paleoflow direction (Figure 8). Fine-grained T facies elements are mud-dominated with thin Ta to Tc beds. The CU/TkU and FU/TnU sequences are typically 5–10 m (16–33 ft) thick and often display gradual transitions (e.g., T2–S3–T3–S4–T4; Figure 2). Elsewhere, major sandstone bodies sit with sharp/planar to locally erosional bases (Figure 3; below logged section). The fluctuating nature of the vertical facies succession resembles those seen at Papar Highway, although these are thinner, Ta thinning-/fining-upward, multistory channel sandstones. channel fills are intercalated with minor thickening-/coarsening-upward channel margin deposits. A slump sheet with abundant carbonaceous material occurs at the top of the outcrop. Sand-rich fan sheet sandstones with localized erosion, are poorly organized, from thickening- to thinning-upward successions; beds up to 3 m (9.8 ft) thick of medium- to coarse-grained Ta–Tb–S3 massive sheet sandstones, with localized erosion, have pebbly sandstone base that thins and fines upward into very thin-bedded sandstone-shale. Poorly sorted, mass-transport deposits of shale-dominant debrites, and uncommon, folded thin- to medium-bedded sandstone cap the sequence.
Depositional Setting InterpretationThe multiple CU/TkU and FU/TnU sequences suggest deposition in a midfan environment, where deposition occurred in nonchannelized lobes and in shallow, braided-type channel systems. Vertical facies organization suggests frequent lateral migration of channel-lobe systems. Thicker sand bodies below the logged section may include larger channel-fill deposits (e.g., Figure 3).
Figure 1.

A) Overview photomontage (of the north side) and B) log of the Taktik Megah Sawmill section.

Figure 1.

A) Overview photomontage (of the north side) and B) log of the Taktik Megah Sawmill section.

Figure 2.

Photomontage of the south side of the Taktik Megah Sawmill section (upper portion — see log).

Figure 2.

Photomontage of the south side of the Taktik Megah Sawmill section (upper portion — see log).

Figure 3.

Photomontage of the lower portion of the south side of the Taktik Megah Sawmill section (not logged). Single turbidite beds are up to 3 m (10 ft) thick. Person for scale.

Figure 3.

Photomontage of the lower portion of the south side of the Taktik Megah Sawmill section (not logged). Single turbidite beds are up to 3 m (10 ft) thick. Person for scale.

Figure 4.

Medium- and thick-bedded turbidites, representing proximal, braided lobe deposits (see Figure 5 for details).

Figure 4.

Medium- and thick-bedded turbidites, representing proximal, braided lobe deposits (see Figure 5 for details).

Figure 5.

Horizontal stratification in a single, 2-m (6-ft) -thick turbidite bed. The stratification is defined by cm (0.4 in.)-scale alternations of medium- and coarsegrained sandstones. Pen is 15 cm (6 in.) long; stratigraphic up is to the right.

Figure 5.

Horizontal stratification in a single, 2-m (6-ft) -thick turbidite bed. The stratification is defined by cm (0.4 in.)-scale alternations of medium- and coarsegrained sandstones. Pen is 15 cm (6 in.) long; stratigraphic up is to the right.

Figure 6.

FU/TnU to CU/TkU facies succession with an intervening muddy debrite interval (upper S2–T2–lower S3 interval; see Figure 7 for details). Person for scale; stratigraphic up is to the east/left.

Figure 6.

FU/TnU to CU/TkU facies succession with an intervening muddy debrite interval (upper S2–T2–lower S3 interval; see Figure 7 for details). Person for scale; stratigraphic up is to the east/left.

Figure 7.

Finely laminated mudstone layer at the base of T2, overlain by a muddy debrite bed, followed by the S3 CU/TkU sequence.

Figure 7.

Finely laminated mudstone layer at the base of T2, overlain by a muddy debrite bed, followed by the S3 CU/TkU sequence.

Figure 8.

Northeastward directed flute casts at the base of thick-bedded, Ta–c turbidite beds at the base of the S5 interval; cap for scale.

Figure 8.

Northeastward directed flute casts at the base of thick-bedded, Ta–c turbidite beds at the base of the S5 interval; cap for scale.

Figure 9.

Very thick-bedded, graded turbidite bed (3 m [10 ft] thick) with overturned (downcurrent) water-escape pipes in the upper part of the bed (see Figure 10 for details). Located in the lower portion of the south side section (Figure 3). Notebook is 20 cm (8 in.) long; stratigraphic up is to the east/right.

Figure 9.

Very thick-bedded, graded turbidite bed (3 m [10 ft] thick) with overturned (downcurrent) water-escape pipes in the upper part of the bed (see Figure 10 for details). Located in the lower portion of the south side section (Figure 3). Notebook is 20 cm (8 in.) long; stratigraphic up is to the east/right.

Figure 10.

Top of the large (3 m [10 ft] thick) Tab turbidite bed in Figure 9, showing a close-up of water-escape pipes that are overturned in the direction of paleoflow (northwards). Pen is 15 cm (6 in.) long.

Figure 10.

Top of the large (3 m [10 ft] thick) Tab turbidite bed in Figure 9, showing a close-up of water-escape pipes that are overturned in the direction of paleoflow (northwards). Pen is 15 cm (6 in.) long.

Figure 11.

Large current ripples on the top of a 2-m (6- ft)-thick turbidite bed in the lower part of the S5 unit. Paleocurrent direction is towards the northwest. Pen is 15 cm (6 in.) long.

Figure 11.

Large current ripples on the top of a 2-m (6- ft)-thick turbidite bed in the lower part of the S5 unit. Paleocurrent direction is towards the northwest. Pen is 15 cm (6 in.) long.

Architectural Element Number on Outcrop Photo or Interpretation Panel
Sheetform Architectural ElementsS1S2S3S4S5S6S7
Length (beds extend across outcrop)>100 m (>328 ft)>100 m (>328 ft)>100 m (>328 ft)>100 m (>328 ft)>100 m (>328 ft)>100 m (>328 ft)>100 m (>328 ft)
Thickness5 m (16 ft)20.5 m (67 ft)7.5 m (25 ft)5.5 m (18 ft)27 m (89 ft)3.5 m (11 ft)10 m (33 ft)
Net-to-gross100%90%80%75%98%100%85%
Outcrop orientation for this elementNANANANANANANA
Average paleocurrent350°NA320°NA350°NANA
Typical facies successionTa–S3Ta–Db–Tc–TeTa–Db–Tc–TeTa–S3Ta–S3–TcTa–S3Ta–Db
Sand/Conglomerate-bed Architecture
Bed-thickness range1–3 m (3.3–9.8 ft)0.5–2 m (1.6–6.6 ft)0.2–1 m (0.7–3.3 ft)0.2–2.7 m (0.7–8.9 ft)0.5–3 m (1.6–9.8 ft)1–3 m (3.3–9.8 ft)0.5–3 m (1.6–9.8 ft)
Bed-thickness average2 m (6.6 ft)0.6 m (2 ft)0.5 m (1.6 ft)NA1 m (3.3 ft)2 m (6.6 ft)1 m (3.3 ft)
Texture — grain size range; average; sortingMedium to coarse; NA; NAMedium to coarse; NA; NAMedium to coarse; NA; NAVery fine to medium; NA; NAFine to coarse; NA; NAMedium to coarse; NA; NAMedium; NA; NA
Shale-bed Architecture
Bed-thickness rangeNA0.1–50 cm (0.04–20 in.)0.1–10 cm (0.04–3.9 in.)0.1–10 cm (0.04–3.9 in.)0.1–10 cm (0.04–3.9 in.)NA0.1–1 cm (0.04–0.4 in.)
Bed-thickness averageNANANANANANANA
Architectural Element Number on Outcrop Photo or Interpretation Panel
Sheetform Architectural ElementsS1S2S3S4S5S6S7
Length (beds extend across outcrop)>100 m (>328 ft)>100 m (>328 ft)>100 m (>328 ft)>100 m (>328 ft)>100 m (>328 ft)>100 m (>328 ft)>100 m (>328 ft)
Thickness5 m (16 ft)20.5 m (67 ft)7.5 m (25 ft)5.5 m (18 ft)27 m (89 ft)3.5 m (11 ft)10 m (33 ft)
Net-to-gross100%90%80%75%98%100%85%
Outcrop orientation for this elementNANANANANANANA
Average paleocurrent350°NA320°NA350°NANA
Typical facies successionTa–S3Ta–Db–Tc–TeTa–Db–Tc–TeTa–S3Ta–S3–TcTa–S3Ta–Db
Sand/Conglomerate-bed Architecture
Bed-thickness range1–3 m (3.3–9.8 ft)0.5–2 m (1.6–6.6 ft)0.2–1 m (0.7–3.3 ft)0.2–2.7 m (0.7–8.9 ft)0.5–3 m (1.6–9.8 ft)1–3 m (3.3–9.8 ft)0.5–3 m (1.6–9.8 ft)
Bed-thickness average2 m (6.6 ft)0.6 m (2 ft)0.5 m (1.6 ft)NA1 m (3.3 ft)2 m (6.6 ft)1 m (3.3 ft)
Texture — grain size range; average; sortingMedium to coarse; NA; NAMedium to coarse; NA; NAMedium to coarse; NA; NAVery fine to medium; NA; NAFine to coarse; NA; NAMedium to coarse; NA; NAMedium; NA; NA
Shale-bed Architecture
Bed-thickness rangeNA0.1–50 cm (0.04–20 in.)0.1–10 cm (0.04–3.9 in.)0.1–10 cm (0.04–3.9 in.)0.1–10 cm (0.04–3.9 in.)NA0.1–1 cm (0.04–0.4 in.)
Bed-thickness averageNANANANANANANA
Architectural Element Number on Outcrop Photo or Interpretation Panel
Thin-bed Architectural ElementT1T2T3T4T5Mass-transport DepositMTD1
Length (beds extend across outcrop)>100 m (>328 ft)>100 m (>328 ft)>100 m (>328 ft)>100 m (>328 ft)>100 m (>328 ft)GeometryNA
Thickness7 m (23 ft)3.5 m (11 ft)4 m (13 ft)3.5 m (11 ft)10.5 m (34 ft)Thickness9 m (30 ft)
Net-to-gross50%30%50%10%5%Aspect ratio: Width/thicknessNA
Texture — grain size range; average; sortingMedium; NA; NAVery fine to medium; NA; NAVery fine to fine; NA; NAClay-silt; NA; NAClay-silt; NA; NANet-to-gross20%
Outcrop orientation for this elementNANANANANAOutcrop orientation for this elementNA
Average paleocurrent340°320°NANANAAverage paleocurrentNA
Typical facies successionTa–Db–TeTc–Db–TeTa–Db–TeTe–DbTypical facies successionBd
Sand-bed ArchitectureInternal bedding architectureNA
Bed-thickness range20–50 cm (7.8–20 in.)10–50 cm (3.9–20 in.)20–50 cm (7.8–20 in.)NANA
Bed-thickness average35 cm (14 in.)25 cm (10 in.)35 cm (14 in.)NANA
Shale-bed Architecture
Bed-thickness range10–50 cm (3.9–20 in.)0.001–1.0 m (0.003–3.3 ft)0.001–1.0 m (0.003–3.3 ft)3.5 m (11 ft)NA
Bed-thickness averageNANA10 cmNANA
Architectural Element Number on Outcrop Photo or Interpretation Panel
Thin-bed Architectural ElementT1T2T3T4T5Mass-transport DepositMTD1
Length (beds extend across outcrop)>100 m (>328 ft)>100 m (>328 ft)>100 m (>328 ft)>100 m (>328 ft)>100 m (>328 ft)GeometryNA
Thickness7 m (23 ft)3.5 m (11 ft)4 m (13 ft)3.5 m (11 ft)10.5 m (34 ft)Thickness9 m (30 ft)
Net-to-gross50%30%50%10%5%Aspect ratio: Width/thicknessNA
Texture — grain size range; average; sortingMedium; NA; NAVery fine to medium; NA; NAVery fine to fine; NA; NAClay-silt; NA; NAClay-silt; NA; NANet-to-gross20%
Outcrop orientation for this elementNANANANANAOutcrop orientation for this elementNA
Average paleocurrent340°320°NANANAAverage paleocurrentNA
Typical facies successionTa–Db–TeTc–Db–TeTa–Db–TeTe–DbTypical facies successionBd
Sand-bed ArchitectureInternal bedding architectureNA
Bed-thickness range20–50 cm (7.8–20 in.)10–50 cm (3.9–20 in.)20–50 cm (7.8–20 in.)NANA
Bed-thickness average35 cm (14 in.)25 cm (10 in.)35 cm (14 in.)NANA
Shale-bed Architecture
Bed-thickness range10–50 cm (3.9–20 in.)0.001–1.0 m (0.003–3.3 ft)0.001–1.0 m (0.003–3.3 ft)3.5 m (11 ft)NA
Bed-thickness averageNANA10 cmNANA

Figures & Tables

Figure 1.

A) Overview photomontage (of the north side) and B) log of the Taktik Megah Sawmill section.

Figure 1.

A) Overview photomontage (of the north side) and B) log of the Taktik Megah Sawmill section.

Figure 2.

Photomontage of the south side of the Taktik Megah Sawmill section (upper portion — see log).

Figure 2.

Photomontage of the south side of the Taktik Megah Sawmill section (upper portion — see log).

Figure 3.

Photomontage of the lower portion of the south side of the Taktik Megah Sawmill section (not logged). Single turbidite beds are up to 3 m (10 ft) thick. Person for scale.

Figure 3.

Photomontage of the lower portion of the south side of the Taktik Megah Sawmill section (not logged). Single turbidite beds are up to 3 m (10 ft) thick. Person for scale.

Figure 4.

Medium- and thick-bedded turbidites, representing proximal, braided lobe deposits (see Figure 5 for details).

Figure 4.

Medium- and thick-bedded turbidites, representing proximal, braided lobe deposits (see Figure 5 for details).

Figure 5.

Horizontal stratification in a single, 2-m (6-ft) -thick turbidite bed. The stratification is defined by cm (0.4 in.)-scale alternations of medium- and coarsegrained sandstones. Pen is 15 cm (6 in.) long; stratigraphic up is to the right.

Figure 5.

Horizontal stratification in a single, 2-m (6-ft) -thick turbidite bed. The stratification is defined by cm (0.4 in.)-scale alternations of medium- and coarsegrained sandstones. Pen is 15 cm (6 in.) long; stratigraphic up is to the right.

Figure 6.

FU/TnU to CU/TkU facies succession with an intervening muddy debrite interval (upper S2–T2–lower S3 interval; see Figure 7 for details). Person for scale; stratigraphic up is to the east/left.

Figure 6.

FU/TnU to CU/TkU facies succession with an intervening muddy debrite interval (upper S2–T2–lower S3 interval; see Figure 7 for details). Person for scale; stratigraphic up is to the east/left.

Figure 7.

Finely laminated mudstone layer at the base of T2, overlain by a muddy debrite bed, followed by the S3 CU/TkU sequence.

Figure 7.

Finely laminated mudstone layer at the base of T2, overlain by a muddy debrite bed, followed by the S3 CU/TkU sequence.

Figure 8.

Northeastward directed flute casts at the base of thick-bedded, Ta–c turbidite beds at the base of the S5 interval; cap for scale.

Figure 8.

Northeastward directed flute casts at the base of thick-bedded, Ta–c turbidite beds at the base of the S5 interval; cap for scale.

Figure 9.

Very thick-bedded, graded turbidite bed (3 m [10 ft] thick) with overturned (downcurrent) water-escape pipes in the upper part of the bed (see Figure 10 for details). Located in the lower portion of the south side section (Figure 3). Notebook is 20 cm (8 in.) long; stratigraphic up is to the east/right.

Figure 9.

Very thick-bedded, graded turbidite bed (3 m [10 ft] thick) with overturned (downcurrent) water-escape pipes in the upper part of the bed (see Figure 10 for details). Located in the lower portion of the south side section (Figure 3). Notebook is 20 cm (8 in.) long; stratigraphic up is to the east/right.

Figure 10.

Top of the large (3 m [10 ft] thick) Tab turbidite bed in Figure 9, showing a close-up of water-escape pipes that are overturned in the direction of paleoflow (northwards). Pen is 15 cm (6 in.) long.

Figure 10.

Top of the large (3 m [10 ft] thick) Tab turbidite bed in Figure 9, showing a close-up of water-escape pipes that are overturned in the direction of paleoflow (northwards). Pen is 15 cm (6 in.) long.

Figure 11.

Large current ripples on the top of a 2-m (6- ft)-thick turbidite bed in the lower part of the S5 unit. Paleocurrent direction is towards the northwest. Pen is 15 cm (6 in.) long.

Figure 11.

Large current ripples on the top of a 2-m (6- ft)-thick turbidite bed in the lower part of the S5 unit. Paleocurrent direction is towards the northwest. Pen is 15 cm (6 in.) long.

Outcrop Summary
Outcrop 6: Taktik Megah Sawmill
LocationFor regional location, setting, and Executive Summary, see intoductory overview paper, chapter 13, this volume
Specifics50 km (31 mi) south of Kota Kinabalu on the east side of the Beaufort Road
Overall Outcrop Dimensions in Panel
Length50 m (164 ft) along strike
Thickness350 m (1150 ft)
Average Net-to-gross70%
Grain-size rangeFine- to coarse-grained sandstones
General Outcrop Description and Stacking Pattern(See overview paper, chapter 13, this volume, for abbreviation definitions and legend for logs.) This outcrop consists of fine-, medium- and coarse-grained sandstones, organized into multiple CU/TkU and FU/TnU sequences (S1–S5 and T1–T5), which are capped by a major slump unit (MTD1). The main sandstone units (S facies elements) are medium- to thick-bedded (up to 3 m [9 ft]), massive to horizontally-stratified (Figure 5), normally graded (Figure 9), and commonly contain dewatering structures (Figures 9, 10) and intercalated debrite beds (Figures 6, 7). Current ripples (Figure 11) and flutes (Figure 8) indicate a dominant northward paleoflow direction (Figure 8). Fine-grained T facies elements are mud-dominated with thin Ta to Tc beds. The CU/TkU and FU/TnU sequences are typically 5–10 m (16–33 ft) thick and often display gradual transitions (e.g., T2–S3–T3–S4–T4; Figure 2). Elsewhere, major sandstone bodies sit with sharp/planar to locally erosional bases (Figure 3; below logged section). The fluctuating nature of the vertical facies succession resembles those seen at Papar Highway, although these are thinner, Ta thinning-/fining-upward, multistory channel sandstones. channel fills are intercalated with minor thickening-/coarsening-upward channel margin deposits. A slump sheet with abundant carbonaceous material occurs at the top of the outcrop. Sand-rich fan sheet sandstones with localized erosion, are poorly organized, from thickening- to thinning-upward successions; beds up to 3 m (9.8 ft) thick of medium- to coarse-grained Ta–Tb–S3 massive sheet sandstones, with localized erosion, have pebbly sandstone base that thins and fines upward into very thin-bedded sandstone-shale. Poorly sorted, mass-transport deposits of shale-dominant debrites, and uncommon, folded thin- to medium-bedded sandstone cap the sequence.
Depositional Setting InterpretationThe multiple CU/TkU and FU/TnU sequences suggest deposition in a midfan environment, where deposition occurred in nonchannelized lobes and in shallow, braided-type channel systems. Vertical facies organization suggests frequent lateral migration of channel-lobe systems. Thicker sand bodies below the logged section may include larger channel-fill deposits (e.g., Figure 3).
Outcrop Summary
Outcrop 6: Taktik Megah Sawmill
LocationFor regional location, setting, and Executive Summary, see intoductory overview paper, chapter 13, this volume
Specifics50 km (31 mi) south of Kota Kinabalu on the east side of the Beaufort Road
Overall Outcrop Dimensions in Panel
Length50 m (164 ft) along strike
Thickness350 m (1150 ft)
Average Net-to-gross70%
Grain-size rangeFine- to coarse-grained sandstones
General Outcrop Description and Stacking Pattern(See overview paper, chapter 13, this volume, for abbreviation definitions and legend for logs.) This outcrop consists of fine-, medium- and coarse-grained sandstones, organized into multiple CU/TkU and FU/TnU sequences (S1–S5 and T1–T5), which are capped by a major slump unit (MTD1). The main sandstone units (S facies elements) are medium- to thick-bedded (up to 3 m [9 ft]), massive to horizontally-stratified (Figure 5), normally graded (Figure 9), and commonly contain dewatering structures (Figures 9, 10) and intercalated debrite beds (Figures 6, 7). Current ripples (Figure 11) and flutes (Figure 8) indicate a dominant northward paleoflow direction (Figure 8). Fine-grained T facies elements are mud-dominated with thin Ta to Tc beds. The CU/TkU and FU/TnU sequences are typically 5–10 m (16–33 ft) thick and often display gradual transitions (e.g., T2–S3–T3–S4–T4; Figure 2). Elsewhere, major sandstone bodies sit with sharp/planar to locally erosional bases (Figure 3; below logged section). The fluctuating nature of the vertical facies succession resembles those seen at Papar Highway, although these are thinner, Ta thinning-/fining-upward, multistory channel sandstones. channel fills are intercalated with minor thickening-/coarsening-upward channel margin deposits. A slump sheet with abundant carbonaceous material occurs at the top of the outcrop. Sand-rich fan sheet sandstones with localized erosion, are poorly organized, from thickening- to thinning-upward successions; beds up to 3 m (9.8 ft) thick of medium- to coarse-grained Ta–Tb–S3 massive sheet sandstones, with localized erosion, have pebbly sandstone base that thins and fines upward into very thin-bedded sandstone-shale. Poorly sorted, mass-transport deposits of shale-dominant debrites, and uncommon, folded thin- to medium-bedded sandstone cap the sequence.
Depositional Setting InterpretationThe multiple CU/TkU and FU/TnU sequences suggest deposition in a midfan environment, where deposition occurred in nonchannelized lobes and in shallow, braided-type channel systems. Vertical facies organization suggests frequent lateral migration of channel-lobe systems. Thicker sand bodies below the logged section may include larger channel-fill deposits (e.g., Figure 3).
Architectural Element Number on Outcrop Photo or Interpretation Panel
Sheetform Architectural ElementsS1S2S3S4S5S6S7
Length (beds extend across outcrop)>100 m (>328 ft)>100 m (>328 ft)>100 m (>328 ft)>100 m (>328 ft)>100 m (>328 ft)>100 m (>328 ft)>100 m (>328 ft)
Thickness5 m (16 ft)20.5 m (67 ft)7.5 m (25 ft)5.5 m (18 ft)27 m (89 ft)3.5 m (11 ft)10 m (33 ft)
Net-to-gross100%90%80%75%98%100%85%
Outcrop orientation for this elementNANANANANANANA
Average paleocurrent350°NA320°NA350°NANA
Typical facies successionTa–S3Ta–Db–Tc–TeTa–Db–Tc–TeTa–S3Ta–S3–TcTa–S3Ta–Db
Sand/Conglomerate-bed Architecture
Bed-thickness range1–3 m (3.3–9.8 ft)0.5–2 m (1.6–6.6 ft)0.2–1 m (0.7–3.3 ft)0.2–2.7 m (0.7–8.9 ft)0.5–3 m (1.6–9.8 ft)1–3 m (3.3–9.8 ft)0.5–3 m (1.6–9.8 ft)
Bed-thickness average2 m (6.6 ft)0.6 m (2 ft)0.5 m (1.6 ft)NA1 m (3.3 ft)2 m (6.6 ft)1 m (3.3 ft)
Texture — grain size range; average; sortingMedium to coarse; NA; NAMedium to coarse; NA; NAMedium to coarse; NA; NAVery fine to medium; NA; NAFine to coarse; NA; NAMedium to coarse; NA; NAMedium; NA; NA
Shale-bed Architecture
Bed-thickness rangeNA0.1–50 cm (0.04–20 in.)0.1–10 cm (0.04–3.9 in.)0.1–10 cm (0.04–3.9 in.)0.1–10 cm (0.04–3.9 in.)NA0.1–1 cm (0.04–0.4 in.)
Bed-thickness averageNANANANANANANA
Architectural Element Number on Outcrop Photo or Interpretation Panel
Sheetform Architectural ElementsS1S2S3S4S5S6S7
Length (beds extend across outcrop)>100 m (>328 ft)>100 m (>328 ft)>100 m (>328 ft)>100 m (>328 ft)>100 m (>328 ft)>100 m (>328 ft)>100 m (>328 ft)
Thickness5 m (16 ft)20.5 m (67 ft)7.5 m (25 ft)5.5 m (18 ft)27 m (89 ft)3.5 m (11 ft)10 m (33 ft)
Net-to-gross100%90%80%75%98%100%85%
Outcrop orientation for this elementNANANANANANANA
Average paleocurrent350°NA320°NA350°NANA
Typical facies successionTa–S3Ta–Db–Tc–TeTa–Db–Tc–TeTa–S3Ta–S3–TcTa–S3Ta–Db
Sand/Conglomerate-bed Architecture
Bed-thickness range1–3 m (3.3–9.8 ft)0.5–2 m (1.6–6.6 ft)0.2–1 m (0.7–3.3 ft)0.2–2.7 m (0.7–8.9 ft)0.5–3 m (1.6–9.8 ft)1–3 m (3.3–9.8 ft)0.5–3 m (1.6–9.8 ft)
Bed-thickness average2 m (6.6 ft)0.6 m (2 ft)0.5 m (1.6 ft)NA1 m (3.3 ft)2 m (6.6 ft)1 m (3.3 ft)
Texture — grain size range; average; sortingMedium to coarse; NA; NAMedium to coarse; NA; NAMedium to coarse; NA; NAVery fine to medium; NA; NAFine to coarse; NA; NAMedium to coarse; NA; NAMedium; NA; NA
Shale-bed Architecture
Bed-thickness rangeNA0.1–50 cm (0.04–20 in.)0.1–10 cm (0.04–3.9 in.)0.1–10 cm (0.04–3.9 in.)0.1–10 cm (0.04–3.9 in.)NA0.1–1 cm (0.04–0.4 in.)
Bed-thickness averageNANANANANANANA
Architectural Element Number on Outcrop Photo or Interpretation Panel
Thin-bed Architectural ElementT1T2T3T4T5Mass-transport DepositMTD1
Length (beds extend across outcrop)>100 m (>328 ft)>100 m (>328 ft)>100 m (>328 ft)>100 m (>328 ft)>100 m (>328 ft)GeometryNA
Thickness7 m (23 ft)3.5 m (11 ft)4 m (13 ft)3.5 m (11 ft)10.5 m (34 ft)Thickness9 m (30 ft)
Net-to-gross50%30%50%10%5%Aspect ratio: Width/thicknessNA
Texture — grain size range; average; sortingMedium; NA; NAVery fine to medium; NA; NAVery fine to fine; NA; NAClay-silt; NA; NAClay-silt; NA; NANet-to-gross20%
Outcrop orientation for this elementNANANANANAOutcrop orientation for this elementNA
Average paleocurrent340°320°NANANAAverage paleocurrentNA
Typical facies successionTa–Db–TeTc–Db–TeTa–Db–TeTe–DbTypical facies successionBd
Sand-bed ArchitectureInternal bedding architectureNA
Bed-thickness range20–50 cm (7.8–20 in.)10–50 cm (3.9–20 in.)20–50 cm (7.8–20 in.)NANA
Bed-thickness average35 cm (14 in.)25 cm (10 in.)35 cm (14 in.)NANA
Shale-bed Architecture
Bed-thickness range10–50 cm (3.9–20 in.)0.001–1.0 m (0.003–3.3 ft)0.001–1.0 m (0.003–3.3 ft)3.5 m (11 ft)NA
Bed-thickness averageNANA10 cmNANA
Architectural Element Number on Outcrop Photo or Interpretation Panel
Thin-bed Architectural ElementT1T2T3T4T5Mass-transport DepositMTD1
Length (beds extend across outcrop)>100 m (>328 ft)>100 m (>328 ft)>100 m (>328 ft)>100 m (>328 ft)>100 m (>328 ft)GeometryNA
Thickness7 m (23 ft)3.5 m (11 ft)4 m (13 ft)3.5 m (11 ft)10.5 m (34 ft)Thickness9 m (30 ft)
Net-to-gross50%30%50%10%5%Aspect ratio: Width/thicknessNA
Texture — grain size range; average; sortingMedium; NA; NAVery fine to medium; NA; NAVery fine to fine; NA; NAClay-silt; NA; NAClay-silt; NA; NANet-to-gross20%
Outcrop orientation for this elementNANANANANAOutcrop orientation for this elementNA
Average paleocurrent340°320°NANANAAverage paleocurrentNA
Typical facies successionTa–Db–TeTc–Db–TeTa–Db–TeTe–DbTypical facies successionBd
Sand-bed ArchitectureInternal bedding architectureNA
Bed-thickness range20–50 cm (7.8–20 in.)10–50 cm (3.9–20 in.)20–50 cm (7.8–20 in.)NANA
Bed-thickness average35 cm (14 in.)25 cm (10 in.)35 cm (14 in.)NANA
Shale-bed Architecture
Bed-thickness range10–50 cm (3.9–20 in.)0.001–1.0 m (0.003–3.3 ft)0.001–1.0 m (0.003–3.3 ft)3.5 m (11 ft)NA
Bed-thickness averageNANA10 cmNANA

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