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Outcrop Summary
Outcrop 5: Papar Highway
LocationFor regional location, setting, and Executive Summary, see introductory overview paper, chapter 13, this volume
Specifics20 km (12 mi) south of Kota Kinabalu
Overall Outcrop Dimensions in Panel
LengthApproximately 10–50 m (33–164 ft) along strike exposure and correlation of genetic packages between outcrops from 0.5–7.5 km (0.3–4.7 mi)
Thickness320 m (1050 ft)
Average Net-to-gross75%
Grain-size rangeFine- to medium-grained sandstones predominate, locally comprised of coarse-grained chert pebble sandstones, rip-up shale clasts up to 2 m (6.6 ft) in diameter are locally reworked in overbank facies.
General Outcrop Description and Stacking Pattern(See overview paper, chapter 13, this volume, for abbreviation definitions and legend for logs.) This section is comprised of an alternation of sand-rich (S facies elements) and subordinate mud-rich (T facies elements) intervals (75%). The sand-rich intervals comprise S3/Ta turbidites (thick-bedded, massive, graded, and dewatered). The intervening thin-bedded facies are mud-dominated, but with intercalations of thin-bedded, classical turbidites (Tbc beds) (Figures 6, 7). A major shale unit (T4) separates a lower mixed sand-mud interval (S1–4, T1–3) from an upper sand-dominated and coarser grained interval (S5–8, T5–7). The lower interval (0–120 m [0–394 ft]) displays both CU/TkU and FU/ThU sequences, typically on a scale of 10–20 m (32–66 ft) (Figures 2, 3). Sand-shale boundaries are often abrupt (Figure 6) and the shale units are almost sand-free (Figure 7). The sandstones are sheet like with localized erosion and symmetrical CU/TkU and FU/ThU sequences (S3; Figure 8). The upper, sandier interval (160–325 m [525–1066 ft]) also shows regular switches between thickening- and thinning-upward successions. It contains massive sheet sandstones with localized erosion, thin pebbly sandstone bases, large intraclasts (Figure 4), and poorly sorted, muddy debrites. Gradational or sharp/planar boundaries separate many CU/TkU and FU/ThU sequences, sometimes resulting in symmetrical sequences (e.g., S8, Figure 5). Erosion surfaces are low-relief and most commonly occur at the base of FU/ThU sequences (e.g., S6).
Depositional Setting InterpretationThis section is characterized by near-equal proportions of multiple stacked, nonchannelized lobe deposits (CU/TkU sequences) and braided distributary-channel complexes (FU/TnU sequences). Deposition was in a sand-rich, midfan environment characterized by laterally shifting, braided-channel-lobe complexes. Equal proportions of channel and lobe sandstones place this in a more updip, midfan position compared to the nearby Lok Kawi section (Outcrop 4).
Outcrop Summary
Outcrop 5: Papar Highway
LocationFor regional location, setting, and Executive Summary, see introductory overview paper, chapter 13, this volume
Specifics20 km (12 mi) south of Kota Kinabalu
Overall Outcrop Dimensions in Panel
LengthApproximately 10–50 m (33–164 ft) along strike exposure and correlation of genetic packages between outcrops from 0.5–7.5 km (0.3–4.7 mi)
Thickness320 m (1050 ft)
Average Net-to-gross75%
Grain-size rangeFine- to medium-grained sandstones predominate, locally comprised of coarse-grained chert pebble sandstones, rip-up shale clasts up to 2 m (6.6 ft) in diameter are locally reworked in overbank facies.
General Outcrop Description and Stacking Pattern(See overview paper, chapter 13, this volume, for abbreviation definitions and legend for logs.) This section is comprised of an alternation of sand-rich (S facies elements) and subordinate mud-rich (T facies elements) intervals (75%). The sand-rich intervals comprise S3/Ta turbidites (thick-bedded, massive, graded, and dewatered). The intervening thin-bedded facies are mud-dominated, but with intercalations of thin-bedded, classical turbidites (Tbc beds) (Figures 6, 7). A major shale unit (T4) separates a lower mixed sand-mud interval (S1–4, T1–3) from an upper sand-dominated and coarser grained interval (S5–8, T5–7). The lower interval (0–120 m [0–394 ft]) displays both CU/TkU and FU/ThU sequences, typically on a scale of 10–20 m (32–66 ft) (Figures 2, 3). Sand-shale boundaries are often abrupt (Figure 6) and the shale units are almost sand-free (Figure 7). The sandstones are sheet like with localized erosion and symmetrical CU/TkU and FU/ThU sequences (S3; Figure 8). The upper, sandier interval (160–325 m [525–1066 ft]) also shows regular switches between thickening- and thinning-upward successions. It contains massive sheet sandstones with localized erosion, thin pebbly sandstone bases, large intraclasts (Figure 4), and poorly sorted, muddy debrites. Gradational or sharp/planar boundaries separate many CU/TkU and FU/ThU sequences, sometimes resulting in symmetrical sequences (e.g., S8, Figure 5). Erosion surfaces are low-relief and most commonly occur at the base of FU/ThU sequences (e.g., S6).
Depositional Setting InterpretationThis section is characterized by near-equal proportions of multiple stacked, nonchannelized lobe deposits (CU/TkU sequences) and braided distributary-channel complexes (FU/TnU sequences). Deposition was in a sand-rich, midfan environment characterized by laterally shifting, braided-channel-lobe complexes. Equal proportions of channel and lobe sandstones place this in a more updip, midfan position compared to the nearby Lok Kawi section (Outcrop 4).
Figure 1.

A) Overview photomontage and B) log of the Papar Highway section.

Figure 1.

A) Overview photomontage and B) log of the Papar Highway section.

Figure 2.

Low-relief, distributary-mouth-bar sheet sands (S2). Thickening- and coarsening-upward facies succession (T1–S2) abruptly abandones. Blue backpack for scale.

Figure 2.

Low-relief, distributary-mouth-bar sheet sands (S2). Thickening- and coarsening-upward facies succession (T1–S2) abruptly abandones. Blue backpack for scale.

Figure 3.

Wedge-shaped shale fill (T3) of abandoned distributary channel, abruptly overlain by tabular channel-margin sands.

Figure 3.

Wedge-shaped shale fill (T3) of abandoned distributary channel, abruptly overlain by tabular channel-margin sands.

Figure 4.

Tree tool mark at base of splay bed in lower part of S5.

Figure 4.

Tree tool mark at base of splay bed in lower part of S5.

Figure 5.

30-m (98-ft)-thick, stacked, massive, scour-based, tabular sand-stone of a low-relief channel complex.

Figure 5.

30-m (98-ft)-thick, stacked, massive, scour-based, tabular sand-stone of a low-relief channel complex.

Figure 6.

Sharp contact between the sandstone-dominated S2 unit and the mudstone-dominated T2 unit. S2 is medium-bedded with thin shale intercalations. T2 contains thin, distal, classical turbidites (mainly Tc beds), which thin and shale out upwards. Blue backpack for scale; stratigraphic up is to the east/left.

Figure 6.

Sharp contact between the sandstone-dominated S2 unit and the mudstone-dominated T2 unit. S2 is medium-bedded with thin shale intercalations. T2 contains thin, distal, classical turbidites (mainly Tc beds), which thin and shale out upwards. Blue backpack for scale; stratigraphic up is to the east/left.

Figure 7.

Mudstone-dominated T2 unit with sparse and very thin turbidites (Tc beds), interpreted as distal-fan/basin-floor deposits. Blue backpack for scale; stratigraphic up is to the east/left.

Figure 7.

Mudstone-dominated T2 unit with sparse and very thin turbidites (Tc beds), interpreted as distal-fan/basin-floor deposits. Blue backpack for scale; stratigraphic up is to the east/left.

Figure 8.

CU/TkU sequence at the base of the S3 unit with overlying T3 mudstones in the top left. Blue backpack for scale; stratigraphic up is to the east/left.

Figure 8.

CU/TkU sequence at the base of the S3 unit with overlying T3 mudstones in the top left. Blue backpack for scale; stratigraphic up is to the east/left.

Architectural Element Number on Outcrop Photo or Interpretation Panel
Sheetform Architectural ElementsS1S2S3S4S5S6S7S8
Length (beds extend across outcrop)>100 m (>328 ft)>100 m (>328 ft)>100 m (>328 ft)>100 m (>328 ft)>100 m (>328 ft)>100 m (>328 ft)>100 m (>328 ft)>100 m (>328 ft)
Thickness15 m (49 ft)5 m (16 ft)26 m (85 ft)25 m (82 ft)40 m (131 ft)33 m (108 ft)13 m (43 ft)65 m (213 ft)
Net-to-gross90%100%95%100%90%95%100%95%
Outcrop orientation for this elementNANANANANANANANA
Average paleocurrent0–20°NANANA35°NANANA
Typical facies successionTa–S3TaTa–S3Ta–S3Ta–S3Ta–S3Ta–S3Ta–S3–Te
Sand/Conglomerate-bed Architecture
Bed-thickness range0.2–1.25 m (0.7–4 ft)NA1–3 m (3.3–9.8 ft)1–4 m (3.3–13 ft)0.5–2 m (1.6–6.6 ft)0.5–5 m (1.6–16 ft)1–3 m (3.3–9.8 ft)0.5–5 m (1.6–16 ft)
Bed-thickness average0.6 m (2 ft)NANANA1 m (3.3 ft)1.5 m (4.9 ft)1.5 m (4.9 ft)1.5 m (4.9 ft)
Texture – grain size range; average; sortingFine to medium; NA; NAMedium to coarse; NA; NAMedium to coarse; NA; NAMedium to coarse; NA; NAMedium; NA; NAFine to coarse; NA; NAMedium to coarse; NA; NAMedium to coarse; NA; NA
Shale-bed Architecture
Bed-thickness range0.01–1 m (0.03–3.3 ft)0.5–1.5 m (1.6–4.9 ft)1–10 cm (0.4–3.9 in.)NA0.1–0.5 cm (0.04–0.2 in.)1–50 cm (0.4–20 in.)NA0.001–1 m (0.003–3.3 ft)
Bed-thickness average10 cm (3.9 in.)70 cm (27 in.)NANANANANA20 cm (7.8 in.)
Architectural Element Number on Outcrop Photo or Interpretation Panel
Sheetform Architectural ElementsS1S2S3S4S5S6S7S8
Length (beds extend across outcrop)>100 m (>328 ft)>100 m (>328 ft)>100 m (>328 ft)>100 m (>328 ft)>100 m (>328 ft)>100 m (>328 ft)>100 m (>328 ft)>100 m (>328 ft)
Thickness15 m (49 ft)5 m (16 ft)26 m (85 ft)25 m (82 ft)40 m (131 ft)33 m (108 ft)13 m (43 ft)65 m (213 ft)
Net-to-gross90%100%95%100%90%95%100%95%
Outcrop orientation for this elementNANANANANANANANA
Average paleocurrent0–20°NANANA35°NANANA
Typical facies successionTa–S3TaTa–S3Ta–S3Ta–S3Ta–S3Ta–S3Ta–S3–Te
Sand/Conglomerate-bed Architecture
Bed-thickness range0.2–1.25 m (0.7–4 ft)NA1–3 m (3.3–9.8 ft)1–4 m (3.3–13 ft)0.5–2 m (1.6–6.6 ft)0.5–5 m (1.6–16 ft)1–3 m (3.3–9.8 ft)0.5–5 m (1.6–16 ft)
Bed-thickness average0.6 m (2 ft)NANANA1 m (3.3 ft)1.5 m (4.9 ft)1.5 m (4.9 ft)1.5 m (4.9 ft)
Texture – grain size range; average; sortingFine to medium; NA; NAMedium to coarse; NA; NAMedium to coarse; NA; NAMedium to coarse; NA; NAMedium; NA; NAFine to coarse; NA; NAMedium to coarse; NA; NAMedium to coarse; NA; NA
Shale-bed Architecture
Bed-thickness range0.01–1 m (0.03–3.3 ft)0.5–1.5 m (1.6–4.9 ft)1–10 cm (0.4–3.9 in.)NA0.1–0.5 cm (0.04–0.2 in.)1–50 cm (0.4–20 in.)NA0.001–1 m (0.003–3.3 ft)
Bed-thickness average10 cm (3.9 in.)70 cm (27 in.)NANANANANA20 cm (7.8 in.)
Architectural Element Number on Outcrop Photo or Interpretation Panel
Thin-bed Architectural ElementsT1T2T3T4T5T6T7
Length (beds extend across outcrop)>100 m (>328 ft)>100 m (>328 ft)>100 m (>328 ft)>100 m (>328 ft)>100 m (>328 ft)>100 m (>328 ft)>100 m (>328 ft)
Thickness20 m (66 ft)20 m (66 ft)10 m (33 ft)40 m (131 ft)15 m (49 ft)10 m (33 ft)8 m (26 ft)
Net-to-gross50%15%5%5%70%40%20%
Texture — grain size range; average; sortingFine to medium; NA; NAVery fine to fine; NA; NAVery fine; NA; NAMedium to coarse; NA; NAFine to medium; NA; NAFine to medium; NA; NAFine to medium; NA; NA
Outcrop orientation for this elementNANANANANANANA
Average paleocurrent0–20°NANANA35°NANA
Typical facies successionTc–TeTc–TeTc–TeTa–Tc–Db–SlumpTa–S3–Tc–TeTc–TeTc–Te–Db–Ta
Sand-bed Architecture
Bed-thickness range5–30 cm (2–12 in.)10–20 cm (3.9–7.8 in.)1–5 cm (0.4–5.9 in.)0.05–1 m (0.16–3.3 ft)0.05–1 m (0.16–3.3 ft)1–10 cm (0.4–3.9 in.)2–25 cm (0.8–9.8 in.)
Bed-thickness averageNANANA0.35NANANA
Shale-bed Architecture
Bed-thickness range5–10 cm (2–4 in.)0.01–4 m (0.03–13 ft)0.1–0.5 cm (0.04–0.2 in.)0.01–5 m (0.03–16 ft)0.01–1 m (0.03–3.3 ft)1–50 cm (0.4–20 in.)0.2–2 m (0.66–6.6 ft)
Bed-thickness averageNANANANANANANA
Architectural Element Number on Outcrop Photo or Interpretation Panel
Thin-bed Architectural ElementsT1T2T3T4T5T6T7
Length (beds extend across outcrop)>100 m (>328 ft)>100 m (>328 ft)>100 m (>328 ft)>100 m (>328 ft)>100 m (>328 ft)>100 m (>328 ft)>100 m (>328 ft)
Thickness20 m (66 ft)20 m (66 ft)10 m (33 ft)40 m (131 ft)15 m (49 ft)10 m (33 ft)8 m (26 ft)
Net-to-gross50%15%5%5%70%40%20%
Texture — grain size range; average; sortingFine to medium; NA; NAVery fine to fine; NA; NAVery fine; NA; NAMedium to coarse; NA; NAFine to medium; NA; NAFine to medium; NA; NAFine to medium; NA; NA
Outcrop orientation for this elementNANANANANANANA
Average paleocurrent0–20°NANANA35°NANA
Typical facies successionTc–TeTc–TeTc–TeTa–Tc–Db–SlumpTa–S3–Tc–TeTc–TeTc–Te–Db–Ta
Sand-bed Architecture
Bed-thickness range5–30 cm (2–12 in.)10–20 cm (3.9–7.8 in.)1–5 cm (0.4–5.9 in.)0.05–1 m (0.16–3.3 ft)0.05–1 m (0.16–3.3 ft)1–10 cm (0.4–3.9 in.)2–25 cm (0.8–9.8 in.)
Bed-thickness averageNANANA0.35NANANA
Shale-bed Architecture
Bed-thickness range5–10 cm (2–4 in.)0.01–4 m (0.03–13 ft)0.1–0.5 cm (0.04–0.2 in.)0.01–5 m (0.03–16 ft)0.01–1 m (0.03–3.3 ft)1–50 cm (0.4–20 in.)0.2–2 m (0.66–6.6 ft)
Bed-thickness averageNANANANANANANA

Figures & Tables

Figure 1.

A) Overview photomontage and B) log of the Papar Highway section.

Figure 1.

A) Overview photomontage and B) log of the Papar Highway section.

Figure 2.

Low-relief, distributary-mouth-bar sheet sands (S2). Thickening- and coarsening-upward facies succession (T1–S2) abruptly abandones. Blue backpack for scale.

Figure 2.

Low-relief, distributary-mouth-bar sheet sands (S2). Thickening- and coarsening-upward facies succession (T1–S2) abruptly abandones. Blue backpack for scale.

Figure 3.

Wedge-shaped shale fill (T3) of abandoned distributary channel, abruptly overlain by tabular channel-margin sands.

Figure 3.

Wedge-shaped shale fill (T3) of abandoned distributary channel, abruptly overlain by tabular channel-margin sands.

Figure 4.

Tree tool mark at base of splay bed in lower part of S5.

Figure 4.

Tree tool mark at base of splay bed in lower part of S5.

Figure 5.

30-m (98-ft)-thick, stacked, massive, scour-based, tabular sand-stone of a low-relief channel complex.

Figure 5.

30-m (98-ft)-thick, stacked, massive, scour-based, tabular sand-stone of a low-relief channel complex.

Figure 6.

Sharp contact between the sandstone-dominated S2 unit and the mudstone-dominated T2 unit. S2 is medium-bedded with thin shale intercalations. T2 contains thin, distal, classical turbidites (mainly Tc beds), which thin and shale out upwards. Blue backpack for scale; stratigraphic up is to the east/left.

Figure 6.

Sharp contact between the sandstone-dominated S2 unit and the mudstone-dominated T2 unit. S2 is medium-bedded with thin shale intercalations. T2 contains thin, distal, classical turbidites (mainly Tc beds), which thin and shale out upwards. Blue backpack for scale; stratigraphic up is to the east/left.

Figure 7.

Mudstone-dominated T2 unit with sparse and very thin turbidites (Tc beds), interpreted as distal-fan/basin-floor deposits. Blue backpack for scale; stratigraphic up is to the east/left.

Figure 7.

Mudstone-dominated T2 unit with sparse and very thin turbidites (Tc beds), interpreted as distal-fan/basin-floor deposits. Blue backpack for scale; stratigraphic up is to the east/left.

Figure 8.

CU/TkU sequence at the base of the S3 unit with overlying T3 mudstones in the top left. Blue backpack for scale; stratigraphic up is to the east/left.

Figure 8.

CU/TkU sequence at the base of the S3 unit with overlying T3 mudstones in the top left. Blue backpack for scale; stratigraphic up is to the east/left.

Outcrop Summary
Outcrop 5: Papar Highway
LocationFor regional location, setting, and Executive Summary, see introductory overview paper, chapter 13, this volume
Specifics20 km (12 mi) south of Kota Kinabalu
Overall Outcrop Dimensions in Panel
LengthApproximately 10–50 m (33–164 ft) along strike exposure and correlation of genetic packages between outcrops from 0.5–7.5 km (0.3–4.7 mi)
Thickness320 m (1050 ft)
Average Net-to-gross75%
Grain-size rangeFine- to medium-grained sandstones predominate, locally comprised of coarse-grained chert pebble sandstones, rip-up shale clasts up to 2 m (6.6 ft) in diameter are locally reworked in overbank facies.
General Outcrop Description and Stacking Pattern(See overview paper, chapter 13, this volume, for abbreviation definitions and legend for logs.) This section is comprised of an alternation of sand-rich (S facies elements) and subordinate mud-rich (T facies elements) intervals (75%). The sand-rich intervals comprise S3/Ta turbidites (thick-bedded, massive, graded, and dewatered). The intervening thin-bedded facies are mud-dominated, but with intercalations of thin-bedded, classical turbidites (Tbc beds) (Figures 6, 7). A major shale unit (T4) separates a lower mixed sand-mud interval (S1–4, T1–3) from an upper sand-dominated and coarser grained interval (S5–8, T5–7). The lower interval (0–120 m [0–394 ft]) displays both CU/TkU and FU/ThU sequences, typically on a scale of 10–20 m (32–66 ft) (Figures 2, 3). Sand-shale boundaries are often abrupt (Figure 6) and the shale units are almost sand-free (Figure 7). The sandstones are sheet like with localized erosion and symmetrical CU/TkU and FU/ThU sequences (S3; Figure 8). The upper, sandier interval (160–325 m [525–1066 ft]) also shows regular switches between thickening- and thinning-upward successions. It contains massive sheet sandstones with localized erosion, thin pebbly sandstone bases, large intraclasts (Figure 4), and poorly sorted, muddy debrites. Gradational or sharp/planar boundaries separate many CU/TkU and FU/ThU sequences, sometimes resulting in symmetrical sequences (e.g., S8, Figure 5). Erosion surfaces are low-relief and most commonly occur at the base of FU/ThU sequences (e.g., S6).
Depositional Setting InterpretationThis section is characterized by near-equal proportions of multiple stacked, nonchannelized lobe deposits (CU/TkU sequences) and braided distributary-channel complexes (FU/TnU sequences). Deposition was in a sand-rich, midfan environment characterized by laterally shifting, braided-channel-lobe complexes. Equal proportions of channel and lobe sandstones place this in a more updip, midfan position compared to the nearby Lok Kawi section (Outcrop 4).
Outcrop Summary
Outcrop 5: Papar Highway
LocationFor regional location, setting, and Executive Summary, see introductory overview paper, chapter 13, this volume
Specifics20 km (12 mi) south of Kota Kinabalu
Overall Outcrop Dimensions in Panel
LengthApproximately 10–50 m (33–164 ft) along strike exposure and correlation of genetic packages between outcrops from 0.5–7.5 km (0.3–4.7 mi)
Thickness320 m (1050 ft)
Average Net-to-gross75%
Grain-size rangeFine- to medium-grained sandstones predominate, locally comprised of coarse-grained chert pebble sandstones, rip-up shale clasts up to 2 m (6.6 ft) in diameter are locally reworked in overbank facies.
General Outcrop Description and Stacking Pattern(See overview paper, chapter 13, this volume, for abbreviation definitions and legend for logs.) This section is comprised of an alternation of sand-rich (S facies elements) and subordinate mud-rich (T facies elements) intervals (75%). The sand-rich intervals comprise S3/Ta turbidites (thick-bedded, massive, graded, and dewatered). The intervening thin-bedded facies are mud-dominated, but with intercalations of thin-bedded, classical turbidites (Tbc beds) (Figures 6, 7). A major shale unit (T4) separates a lower mixed sand-mud interval (S1–4, T1–3) from an upper sand-dominated and coarser grained interval (S5–8, T5–7). The lower interval (0–120 m [0–394 ft]) displays both CU/TkU and FU/ThU sequences, typically on a scale of 10–20 m (32–66 ft) (Figures 2, 3). Sand-shale boundaries are often abrupt (Figure 6) and the shale units are almost sand-free (Figure 7). The sandstones are sheet like with localized erosion and symmetrical CU/TkU and FU/ThU sequences (S3; Figure 8). The upper, sandier interval (160–325 m [525–1066 ft]) also shows regular switches between thickening- and thinning-upward successions. It contains massive sheet sandstones with localized erosion, thin pebbly sandstone bases, large intraclasts (Figure 4), and poorly sorted, muddy debrites. Gradational or sharp/planar boundaries separate many CU/TkU and FU/ThU sequences, sometimes resulting in symmetrical sequences (e.g., S8, Figure 5). Erosion surfaces are low-relief and most commonly occur at the base of FU/ThU sequences (e.g., S6).
Depositional Setting InterpretationThis section is characterized by near-equal proportions of multiple stacked, nonchannelized lobe deposits (CU/TkU sequences) and braided distributary-channel complexes (FU/TnU sequences). Deposition was in a sand-rich, midfan environment characterized by laterally shifting, braided-channel-lobe complexes. Equal proportions of channel and lobe sandstones place this in a more updip, midfan position compared to the nearby Lok Kawi section (Outcrop 4).
Architectural Element Number on Outcrop Photo or Interpretation Panel
Sheetform Architectural ElementsS1S2S3S4S5S6S7S8
Length (beds extend across outcrop)>100 m (>328 ft)>100 m (>328 ft)>100 m (>328 ft)>100 m (>328 ft)>100 m (>328 ft)>100 m (>328 ft)>100 m (>328 ft)>100 m (>328 ft)
Thickness15 m (49 ft)5 m (16 ft)26 m (85 ft)25 m (82 ft)40 m (131 ft)33 m (108 ft)13 m (43 ft)65 m (213 ft)
Net-to-gross90%100%95%100%90%95%100%95%
Outcrop orientation for this elementNANANANANANANANA
Average paleocurrent0–20°NANANA35°NANANA
Typical facies successionTa–S3TaTa–S3Ta–S3Ta–S3Ta–S3Ta–S3Ta–S3–Te
Sand/Conglomerate-bed Architecture
Bed-thickness range0.2–1.25 m (0.7–4 ft)NA1–3 m (3.3–9.8 ft)1–4 m (3.3–13 ft)0.5–2 m (1.6–6.6 ft)0.5–5 m (1.6–16 ft)1–3 m (3.3–9.8 ft)0.5–5 m (1.6–16 ft)
Bed-thickness average0.6 m (2 ft)NANANA1 m (3.3 ft)1.5 m (4.9 ft)1.5 m (4.9 ft)1.5 m (4.9 ft)
Texture – grain size range; average; sortingFine to medium; NA; NAMedium to coarse; NA; NAMedium to coarse; NA; NAMedium to coarse; NA; NAMedium; NA; NAFine to coarse; NA; NAMedium to coarse; NA; NAMedium to coarse; NA; NA
Shale-bed Architecture
Bed-thickness range0.01–1 m (0.03–3.3 ft)0.5–1.5 m (1.6–4.9 ft)1–10 cm (0.4–3.9 in.)NA0.1–0.5 cm (0.04–0.2 in.)1–50 cm (0.4–20 in.)NA0.001–1 m (0.003–3.3 ft)
Bed-thickness average10 cm (3.9 in.)70 cm (27 in.)NANANANANA20 cm (7.8 in.)
Architectural Element Number on Outcrop Photo or Interpretation Panel
Sheetform Architectural ElementsS1S2S3S4S5S6S7S8
Length (beds extend across outcrop)>100 m (>328 ft)>100 m (>328 ft)>100 m (>328 ft)>100 m (>328 ft)>100 m (>328 ft)>100 m (>328 ft)>100 m (>328 ft)>100 m (>328 ft)
Thickness15 m (49 ft)5 m (16 ft)26 m (85 ft)25 m (82 ft)40 m (131 ft)33 m (108 ft)13 m (43 ft)65 m (213 ft)
Net-to-gross90%100%95%100%90%95%100%95%
Outcrop orientation for this elementNANANANANANANANA
Average paleocurrent0–20°NANANA35°NANANA
Typical facies successionTa–S3TaTa–S3Ta–S3Ta–S3Ta–S3Ta–S3Ta–S3–Te
Sand/Conglomerate-bed Architecture
Bed-thickness range0.2–1.25 m (0.7–4 ft)NA1–3 m (3.3–9.8 ft)1–4 m (3.3–13 ft)0.5–2 m (1.6–6.6 ft)0.5–5 m (1.6–16 ft)1–3 m (3.3–9.8 ft)0.5–5 m (1.6–16 ft)
Bed-thickness average0.6 m (2 ft)NANANA1 m (3.3 ft)1.5 m (4.9 ft)1.5 m (4.9 ft)1.5 m (4.9 ft)
Texture – grain size range; average; sortingFine to medium; NA; NAMedium to coarse; NA; NAMedium to coarse; NA; NAMedium to coarse; NA; NAMedium; NA; NAFine to coarse; NA; NAMedium to coarse; NA; NAMedium to coarse; NA; NA
Shale-bed Architecture
Bed-thickness range0.01–1 m (0.03–3.3 ft)0.5–1.5 m (1.6–4.9 ft)1–10 cm (0.4–3.9 in.)NA0.1–0.5 cm (0.04–0.2 in.)1–50 cm (0.4–20 in.)NA0.001–1 m (0.003–3.3 ft)
Bed-thickness average10 cm (3.9 in.)70 cm (27 in.)NANANANANA20 cm (7.8 in.)
Architectural Element Number on Outcrop Photo or Interpretation Panel
Thin-bed Architectural ElementsT1T2T3T4T5T6T7
Length (beds extend across outcrop)>100 m (>328 ft)>100 m (>328 ft)>100 m (>328 ft)>100 m (>328 ft)>100 m (>328 ft)>100 m (>328 ft)>100 m (>328 ft)
Thickness20 m (66 ft)20 m (66 ft)10 m (33 ft)40 m (131 ft)15 m (49 ft)10 m (33 ft)8 m (26 ft)
Net-to-gross50%15%5%5%70%40%20%
Texture — grain size range; average; sortingFine to medium; NA; NAVery fine to fine; NA; NAVery fine; NA; NAMedium to coarse; NA; NAFine to medium; NA; NAFine to medium; NA; NAFine to medium; NA; NA
Outcrop orientation for this elementNANANANANANANA
Average paleocurrent0–20°NANANA35°NANA
Typical facies successionTc–TeTc–TeTc–TeTa–Tc–Db–SlumpTa–S3–Tc–TeTc–TeTc–Te–Db–Ta
Sand-bed Architecture
Bed-thickness range5–30 cm (2–12 in.)10–20 cm (3.9–7.8 in.)1–5 cm (0.4–5.9 in.)0.05–1 m (0.16–3.3 ft)0.05–1 m (0.16–3.3 ft)1–10 cm (0.4–3.9 in.)2–25 cm (0.8–9.8 in.)
Bed-thickness averageNANANA0.35NANANA
Shale-bed Architecture
Bed-thickness range5–10 cm (2–4 in.)0.01–4 m (0.03–13 ft)0.1–0.5 cm (0.04–0.2 in.)0.01–5 m (0.03–16 ft)0.01–1 m (0.03–3.3 ft)1–50 cm (0.4–20 in.)0.2–2 m (0.66–6.6 ft)
Bed-thickness averageNANANANANANANA
Architectural Element Number on Outcrop Photo or Interpretation Panel
Thin-bed Architectural ElementsT1T2T3T4T5T6T7
Length (beds extend across outcrop)>100 m (>328 ft)>100 m (>328 ft)>100 m (>328 ft)>100 m (>328 ft)>100 m (>328 ft)>100 m (>328 ft)>100 m (>328 ft)
Thickness20 m (66 ft)20 m (66 ft)10 m (33 ft)40 m (131 ft)15 m (49 ft)10 m (33 ft)8 m (26 ft)
Net-to-gross50%15%5%5%70%40%20%
Texture — grain size range; average; sortingFine to medium; NA; NAVery fine to fine; NA; NAVery fine; NA; NAMedium to coarse; NA; NAFine to medium; NA; NAFine to medium; NA; NAFine to medium; NA; NA
Outcrop orientation for this elementNANANANANANANA
Average paleocurrent0–20°NANANA35°NANA
Typical facies successionTc–TeTc–TeTc–TeTa–Tc–Db–SlumpTa–S3–Tc–TeTc–TeTc–Te–Db–Ta
Sand-bed Architecture
Bed-thickness range5–30 cm (2–12 in.)10–20 cm (3.9–7.8 in.)1–5 cm (0.4–5.9 in.)0.05–1 m (0.16–3.3 ft)0.05–1 m (0.16–3.3 ft)1–10 cm (0.4–3.9 in.)2–25 cm (0.8–9.8 in.)
Bed-thickness averageNANANA0.35NANANA
Shale-bed Architecture
Bed-thickness range5–10 cm (2–4 in.)0.01–4 m (0.03–13 ft)0.1–0.5 cm (0.04–0.2 in.)0.01–5 m (0.03–16 ft)0.01–1 m (0.03–3.3 ft)1–50 cm (0.4–20 in.)0.2–2 m (0.66–6.6 ft)
Bed-thickness averageNANANANANANANA

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