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Outcrop Summary
Outcrop 3: Taman Viewpoint
LocationFor regional location, setting, Executive Summary, see introductory overview paper, chapter 13, this volume
Specifics10 km (6 mi) north of Kota Kinabalu and 2 km (1.2 mi) north of the village of Inanam.
Overall Outcrop Dimensions in Panel
LengthUp to 100 m (328 ft) along strike in the lower 40 m (131 ft) of the succession (quarry floor). Above this level, the lengths are ~10–20 m (33–66 ft) along strike.
Thickness~250 m (820 ft) in total, 185 m (607 ft) measured in detail.
Average Net-to-gross70%
Grain-size rangeFine- to medium-grained sandstones with local occurrences of coarse-grained, chert pebble sandstones. Shale clasts are locally reworked in the overbank facies.
General Outcrop Description and Stacking Pattern(See overview paper, chapter 13, this volume, for abbreviation definitions and legend for logs.) This section comprises an alternation of 10–25-m (33–82-ft)-thick, fine- to medium-grained, thick-bedded, blocky to FU/TnU sandstones (C1–4, S1–3) and 5–15-m (16–50-ft)-thick) and finer grained/muddier, thin-bedded, heterolithic deposits, which are also organized into FU/TkU sequences (T1–7) (Figure 1). The succession is divided into 4 megasequences (I–IV, from bottom to top) (Figure 1A, B):
Megasequence I (0–45 m [0–148 ft]) comprises two sand-dominated (80% sand), broadly FU/TnU sequences: (1) C1 to T1 (0–22 m [0–72 ft]), and (2) C2 to T2 (22–45 m [72–148 ft]). The C facies elements comprise medium- to thick-bedded, S3-Ta turbidites, displaying erosion surfaces, occasional cross-stratification (Figure 7), structureless beds, dewatering features, and large mud clasts (Figure 6). Discrete, medium-bedded turbidites at the top of the C2 facies element preserve a diverse suite of deep-water trace fossils, including Paleodictyon, Nereites, Helminthoide, and Cosmorhaphe (Figures 3A–C). Facies elements T1 and T2 both show FU/TnU trends characterized by thin-bedded Tbc turbidites (Figure 2).
Megasequence II (45–112 m [148–367 ft]) also forms two overall FU/TnU sequences: (1) C3 toT3 (45–78 m [148–256 ft]), and (2) S1 toT4 (78–112 m [256–367 ft]). The sandstone bodies comprise S3-Ta facies, which are largely structureless to weakly stratified. The succession fines upwards and terminates in a very distinctive, heterolithic unit (Figure 4). This uppermost interval (T4) is comprised of current-ripple, cross-laminated, fine-grained sandstones with numerous clay drapes (Figure 8), which superficially resemble flaser-bedded, tidal deposits (Figures 5A, B, C). Individual sandstone beds alternate with mudstone layers and frequently form small-scale (1–4 m [3–13 ft] thick) FU/TnU sequences (Figure 5C).
Megasequence III (112–163 m [367–535 ft]) and Megasequence IV (163–185 m [535–607 ft]) complete the section with three FU/TnU sequences: (1) C4–T5 (112–141 m [367–462 ft]), (2) S2–T6 (141–164 m [462–538 ft]), and (3) S3–T7 (164–185 m [538–607 ft]).
Depositional Setting InterpretationStacking patterns are dominated by vertically stacked, FU/TnU sequences developed within a multistory/multilateral turbidite sandstone complex. Individual FU/TnU sequences could represent either laterally migrating channels or gradually abandoned lobes to form a high net-to-gross, sheet-sandstone complex. Proximity to the nearby, deeply scoured, axial channels in Inanam Quarry favors a channel interpretation. Hence, the thickly bedded sandstones (C facies elements) could represent channel-axis deposits while the medium bedded (Ta-b) sandstones with delicate trace fossils may form channel- margin deposits. In contrast, the current-rippled, heterolithic/flaser-bedded facies are interpreted as levee deposits (e.g., T4).
Outcrop Summary
Outcrop 3: Taman Viewpoint
LocationFor regional location, setting, Executive Summary, see introductory overview paper, chapter 13, this volume
Specifics10 km (6 mi) north of Kota Kinabalu and 2 km (1.2 mi) north of the village of Inanam.
Overall Outcrop Dimensions in Panel
LengthUp to 100 m (328 ft) along strike in the lower 40 m (131 ft) of the succession (quarry floor). Above this level, the lengths are ~10–20 m (33–66 ft) along strike.
Thickness~250 m (820 ft) in total, 185 m (607 ft) measured in detail.
Average Net-to-gross70%
Grain-size rangeFine- to medium-grained sandstones with local occurrences of coarse-grained, chert pebble sandstones. Shale clasts are locally reworked in the overbank facies.
General Outcrop Description and Stacking Pattern(See overview paper, chapter 13, this volume, for abbreviation definitions and legend for logs.) This section comprises an alternation of 10–25-m (33–82-ft)-thick, fine- to medium-grained, thick-bedded, blocky to FU/TnU sandstones (C1–4, S1–3) and 5–15-m (16–50-ft)-thick) and finer grained/muddier, thin-bedded, heterolithic deposits, which are also organized into FU/TkU sequences (T1–7) (Figure 1). The succession is divided into 4 megasequences (I–IV, from bottom to top) (Figure 1A, B):
Megasequence I (0–45 m [0–148 ft]) comprises two sand-dominated (80% sand), broadly FU/TnU sequences: (1) C1 to T1 (0–22 m [0–72 ft]), and (2) C2 to T2 (22–45 m [72–148 ft]). The C facies elements comprise medium- to thick-bedded, S3-Ta turbidites, displaying erosion surfaces, occasional cross-stratification (Figure 7), structureless beds, dewatering features, and large mud clasts (Figure 6). Discrete, medium-bedded turbidites at the top of the C2 facies element preserve a diverse suite of deep-water trace fossils, including Paleodictyon, Nereites, Helminthoide, and Cosmorhaphe (Figures 3A–C). Facies elements T1 and T2 both show FU/TnU trends characterized by thin-bedded Tbc turbidites (Figure 2).
Megasequence II (45–112 m [148–367 ft]) also forms two overall FU/TnU sequences: (1) C3 toT3 (45–78 m [148–256 ft]), and (2) S1 toT4 (78–112 m [256–367 ft]). The sandstone bodies comprise S3-Ta facies, which are largely structureless to weakly stratified. The succession fines upwards and terminates in a very distinctive, heterolithic unit (Figure 4). This uppermost interval (T4) is comprised of current-ripple, cross-laminated, fine-grained sandstones with numerous clay drapes (Figure 8), which superficially resemble flaser-bedded, tidal deposits (Figures 5A, B, C). Individual sandstone beds alternate with mudstone layers and frequently form small-scale (1–4 m [3–13 ft] thick) FU/TnU sequences (Figure 5C).
Megasequence III (112–163 m [367–535 ft]) and Megasequence IV (163–185 m [535–607 ft]) complete the section with three FU/TnU sequences: (1) C4–T5 (112–141 m [367–462 ft]), (2) S2–T6 (141–164 m [462–538 ft]), and (3) S3–T7 (164–185 m [538–607 ft]).
Depositional Setting InterpretationStacking patterns are dominated by vertically stacked, FU/TnU sequences developed within a multistory/multilateral turbidite sandstone complex. Individual FU/TnU sequences could represent either laterally migrating channels or gradually abandoned lobes to form a high net-to-gross, sheet-sandstone complex. Proximity to the nearby, deeply scoured, axial channels in Inanam Quarry favors a channel interpretation. Hence, the thickly bedded sandstones (C facies elements) could represent channel-axis deposits while the medium bedded (Ta-b) sandstones with delicate trace fossils may form channel- margin deposits. In contrast, the current-rippled, heterolithic/flaser-bedded facies are interpreted as levee deposits (e.g., T4).
Figure 1.

A) Overview photomontage and B) log of the Taman Viewpoint section. Megasequence IV shown on log.

Figure 1.

A) Overview photomontage and B) log of the Taman Viewpoint section. Megasequence IV shown on log.

Figure 2.

FU/TnU sequence in the T2 facies element showing the gradual upward reduction in thickness of thin-bedded, Tc turbidities. Scale bar is 10cm (4 in.) long; stratigraphic up is to the east/right.

Figure 2.

FU/TnU sequence in the T2 facies element showing the gradual upward reduction in thickness of thin-bedded, Tc turbidities. Scale bar is 10cm (4 in.) long; stratigraphic up is to the east/right.

Figure 3.

Trace fossils preserved on the base of sandstone beds toward the top of facies element C2 (33 m [108 ft]), including Paleodyction, Nereites, and Cosmorhaphe. Pen in A and C is 15 cm (6 in.) long; hammer in B is 30 cm (12 in.) long.

Figure 3.

Trace fossils preserved on the base of sandstone beds toward the top of facies element C2 (33 m [108 ft]), including Paleodyction, Nereites, and Cosmorhaphe. Pen in A and C is 15 cm (6 in.) long; hammer in B is 30 cm (12 in.) long.

Figure 4.

Upper part of Megasequence II illustrating the overall FU/TnU trend from S1 into T4, representing a possible channel-levee sequence. See details of the T4 heterolithic facies in Figure 5. Stratigraphic up is to east/right.

Figure 4.

Upper part of Megasequence II illustrating the overall FU/TnU trend from S1 into T4, representing a possible channel-levee sequence. See details of the T4 heterolithic facies in Figure 5. Stratigraphic up is to east/right.

Figure 5.

Detail of heterolithic levee facies consisting of 0.1–0.5-m (0.3–1.6-ft)-thick sandstone beds with current-ripple and climbing-current-ripple cross-lamination with muddy drapes interbedded with carbonaceous shale. Note similarity to flaser and wavy bedding, more commonly found in tidal deposits. Pen in C is 15 cm (6 in.) long; stratigraphic up is to the east/right.

Figure 5.

Detail of heterolithic levee facies consisting of 0.1–0.5-m (0.3–1.6-ft)-thick sandstone beds with current-ripple and climbing-current-ripple cross-lamination with muddy drapes interbedded with carbonaceous shale. Note similarity to flaser and wavy bedding, more commonly found in tidal deposits. Pen in C is 15 cm (6 in.) long; stratigraphic up is to the east/right.

Figure 6.

Base of C1 interval (3 m [9.8 ft]) showing bedding plane surface covered in weathered-out mud clasts, which are up to 2 m (6 ft) in diameter (center of bedding plane).

Figure 6.

Base of C1 interval (3 m [9.8 ft]) showing bedding plane surface covered in weathered-out mud clasts, which are up to 2 m (6 ft) in diameter (center of bedding plane).

Figure 7.

Well-developed cross-bedding in C2 (24–26 m [79–85 ft]) showing northward-directed paleoflow. Scale bar is 10 cm (4 in.) long.

Figure 7.

Well-developed cross-bedding in C2 (24–26 m [79–85 ft]) showing northward-directed paleoflow. Scale bar is 10 cm (4 in.) long.

Figure 8.

Flaser bedding developed within current-rippled, crosslaminated sandstones in facies element T4. Pen is 15 cm (6 in.) long.

Figure 8.

Flaser bedding developed within current-rippled, crosslaminated sandstones in facies element T4. Pen is 15 cm (6 in.) long.

Architectural Element number on Outcrop Photo or Interpretation Panel
channel and Sheet Architectural ElementsC1C2C3C4S1S2S3
Length (beds extend across outcrop)>100 m (>328 ft)>100 m (>328 ft)>100 m (>328 ft)>100 m (>328 ft)>100 m (>328 ft)>100 m (>328 ft)>100 m (>328 ft)
Thickness17 m (56 ft)16.5 m (54 ft)30 m (98 ft)23.5 m (77 ft)20 m (65.5 ft)8 m (26 ft)11m (36 m)
Net-to-gross100%95%100%100%85%100%100%
Outcrop orientation for this element20°20°20°20°20°20°20°
Average paleocurrentNANANANANANANA
Typical facies successionTa–S3–TabS1–S2–Ta–Db–TcTa–S3Ta–S3Ta–Db–TcTa–S3Ta–S3
Sand-bed Architecture
Bed-thickness range0.2–3 m (0.7–9.8 ft)0.8–2.5 m (2.6–8.2 ft)1–3 m (3.3–9.8 ft)1–3 m (3.3–9.8 ft)0.5–1.3 m (1.6–4.3 ft)1–3 m (3.3–9.8 ft)2–3 m (6.6–9.8 ft)
Bed-thickness average1.5 m (4.9 ft)1.5 m (4.9 ft)2 m (6.6 ft)NA0.7 m (2.3 ft)NANA
Texture — grain size range; average; sortingMedium; NA; NAMedium; NA; NAMedium; NA; NAFine to medium; NA; NAMedium; NA; NAFine to medium; NA; NAFine to medium; NA; NA
Shale-bed Architecture
Bed-thickness rangeNA1 m (3.3 ft)NANA1–50 cm (0.4–20 in)NANA
Bed-thickness averageNANANANA0.02NANA
Architectural Element number on Outcrop Photo or Interpretation Panel
channel and Sheet Architectural ElementsC1C2C3C4S1S2S3
Length (beds extend across outcrop)>100 m (>328 ft)>100 m (>328 ft)>100 m (>328 ft)>100 m (>328 ft)>100 m (>328 ft)>100 m (>328 ft)>100 m (>328 ft)
Thickness17 m (56 ft)16.5 m (54 ft)30 m (98 ft)23.5 m (77 ft)20 m (65.5 ft)8 m (26 ft)11m (36 m)
Net-to-gross100%95%100%100%85%100%100%
Outcrop orientation for this element20°20°20°20°20°20°20°
Average paleocurrentNANANANANANANA
Typical facies successionTa–S3–TabS1–S2–Ta–Db–TcTa–S3Ta–S3Ta–Db–TcTa–S3Ta–S3
Sand-bed Architecture
Bed-thickness range0.2–3 m (0.7–9.8 ft)0.8–2.5 m (2.6–8.2 ft)1–3 m (3.3–9.8 ft)1–3 m (3.3–9.8 ft)0.5–1.3 m (1.6–4.3 ft)1–3 m (3.3–9.8 ft)2–3 m (6.6–9.8 ft)
Bed-thickness average1.5 m (4.9 ft)1.5 m (4.9 ft)2 m (6.6 ft)NA0.7 m (2.3 ft)NANA
Texture — grain size range; average; sortingMedium; NA; NAMedium; NA; NAMedium; NA; NAFine to medium; NA; NAMedium; NA; NAFine to medium; NA; NAFine to medium; NA; NA
Shale-bed Architecture
Bed-thickness rangeNA1 m (3.3 ft)NANA1–50 cm (0.4–20 in)NANA
Bed-thickness averageNANANANA0.02NANA
Architectural Element Number on Outcrop Photo or Interpretation Panel
Thin-bed Architectural ElementsT1T2T3T4T5T6T7
Length (beds extend across outcrop except*)>100 m (>328 ft)>100 m (>328 ft)>100 m (>328 ft)>100 m (>328 ft) *>100 m (>328 ft) *>100 m (>328 ft) *>100 m (>328 ft)
Thickness5.5 m (18 ft)6 m (19.7 ft)3 m (9.8 ft)15 m (49 ft)4.5 m (14.8 ft)14 m (46 ft)10 m (32.8 ft)
Net-to-gross50%20%20%50%20%10%100%
Texture — grain size range; average; sortingVery fine to fine; NA; NAVery fine to fine; NA; NAVery fine; NA; NAVery fine to fine; NA; NAVery fine to fine; NA; NAVery fine; NA; NANA
Outcrop orientation for this element20°20°20°20°20°NANA
Average paleocurrentNANANA45NANANA
Typical facies successionTc–TeTc–TeTc–Ta–Db–TeTc–Td–TeTc–Td–TeTc–Td–TeTe
Sand-bed Architecture
Bed-thickness range15–70 cm (6–28 in.)2–5 cm (0.8–2 in.)2–10 cm (0.8–3.9 in.)10–30 cm (3.9–12 in.)1–5 cm (0.4–2 in.)10–30 cm (3.9–12 in.)NA
Bed-thickness average0.2 m (0.7 ft)NANA0.15 m (0.5 ft)NANANA
Shale-bed Architecture
Bed-length averageNANANA0.001–1 m (0.003–3.3 ft)0.1–3 m (0.3–9.8 ft)0.001–6 m (0.003–20 ft)NA
Bed-thickness range0.2–1 m (0.7–3.3 ft)0.1–2.5 m (0.3–8.2 ft)5–20 cm (2–7.8 in.)2 cm (0.8 in.)NANANA
Bed-thickness average40 cm (16 in.)NANANANANANA
Architectural Element Number on Outcrop Photo or Interpretation Panel
Thin-bed Architectural ElementsT1T2T3T4T5T6T7
Length (beds extend across outcrop except*)>100 m (>328 ft)>100 m (>328 ft)>100 m (>328 ft)>100 m (>328 ft) *>100 m (>328 ft) *>100 m (>328 ft) *>100 m (>328 ft)
Thickness5.5 m (18 ft)6 m (19.7 ft)3 m (9.8 ft)15 m (49 ft)4.5 m (14.8 ft)14 m (46 ft)10 m (32.8 ft)
Net-to-gross50%20%20%50%20%10%100%
Texture — grain size range; average; sortingVery fine to fine; NA; NAVery fine to fine; NA; NAVery fine; NA; NAVery fine to fine; NA; NAVery fine to fine; NA; NAVery fine; NA; NANA
Outcrop orientation for this element20°20°20°20°20°NANA
Average paleocurrentNANANA45NANANA
Typical facies successionTc–TeTc–TeTc–Ta–Db–TeTc–Td–TeTc–Td–TeTc–Td–TeTe
Sand-bed Architecture
Bed-thickness range15–70 cm (6–28 in.)2–5 cm (0.8–2 in.)2–10 cm (0.8–3.9 in.)10–30 cm (3.9–12 in.)1–5 cm (0.4–2 in.)10–30 cm (3.9–12 in.)NA
Bed-thickness average0.2 m (0.7 ft)NANA0.15 m (0.5 ft)NANANA
Shale-bed Architecture
Bed-length averageNANANA0.001–1 m (0.003–3.3 ft)0.1–3 m (0.3–9.8 ft)0.001–6 m (0.003–20 ft)NA
Bed-thickness range0.2–1 m (0.7–3.3 ft)0.1–2.5 m (0.3–8.2 ft)5–20 cm (2–7.8 in.)2 cm (0.8 in.)NANANA
Bed-thickness average40 cm (16 in.)NANANANANANA

Figures & Tables

Figure 1.

A) Overview photomontage and B) log of the Taman Viewpoint section. Megasequence IV shown on log.

Figure 1.

A) Overview photomontage and B) log of the Taman Viewpoint section. Megasequence IV shown on log.

Figure 2.

FU/TnU sequence in the T2 facies element showing the gradual upward reduction in thickness of thin-bedded, Tc turbidities. Scale bar is 10cm (4 in.) long; stratigraphic up is to the east/right.

Figure 2.

FU/TnU sequence in the T2 facies element showing the gradual upward reduction in thickness of thin-bedded, Tc turbidities. Scale bar is 10cm (4 in.) long; stratigraphic up is to the east/right.

Figure 3.

Trace fossils preserved on the base of sandstone beds toward the top of facies element C2 (33 m [108 ft]), including Paleodyction, Nereites, and Cosmorhaphe. Pen in A and C is 15 cm (6 in.) long; hammer in B is 30 cm (12 in.) long.

Figure 3.

Trace fossils preserved on the base of sandstone beds toward the top of facies element C2 (33 m [108 ft]), including Paleodyction, Nereites, and Cosmorhaphe. Pen in A and C is 15 cm (6 in.) long; hammer in B is 30 cm (12 in.) long.

Figure 4.

Upper part of Megasequence II illustrating the overall FU/TnU trend from S1 into T4, representing a possible channel-levee sequence. See details of the T4 heterolithic facies in Figure 5. Stratigraphic up is to east/right.

Figure 4.

Upper part of Megasequence II illustrating the overall FU/TnU trend from S1 into T4, representing a possible channel-levee sequence. See details of the T4 heterolithic facies in Figure 5. Stratigraphic up is to east/right.

Figure 5.

Detail of heterolithic levee facies consisting of 0.1–0.5-m (0.3–1.6-ft)-thick sandstone beds with current-ripple and climbing-current-ripple cross-lamination with muddy drapes interbedded with carbonaceous shale. Note similarity to flaser and wavy bedding, more commonly found in tidal deposits. Pen in C is 15 cm (6 in.) long; stratigraphic up is to the east/right.

Figure 5.

Detail of heterolithic levee facies consisting of 0.1–0.5-m (0.3–1.6-ft)-thick sandstone beds with current-ripple and climbing-current-ripple cross-lamination with muddy drapes interbedded with carbonaceous shale. Note similarity to flaser and wavy bedding, more commonly found in tidal deposits. Pen in C is 15 cm (6 in.) long; stratigraphic up is to the east/right.

Figure 6.

Base of C1 interval (3 m [9.8 ft]) showing bedding plane surface covered in weathered-out mud clasts, which are up to 2 m (6 ft) in diameter (center of bedding plane).

Figure 6.

Base of C1 interval (3 m [9.8 ft]) showing bedding plane surface covered in weathered-out mud clasts, which are up to 2 m (6 ft) in diameter (center of bedding plane).

Figure 7.

Well-developed cross-bedding in C2 (24–26 m [79–85 ft]) showing northward-directed paleoflow. Scale bar is 10 cm (4 in.) long.

Figure 7.

Well-developed cross-bedding in C2 (24–26 m [79–85 ft]) showing northward-directed paleoflow. Scale bar is 10 cm (4 in.) long.

Figure 8.

Flaser bedding developed within current-rippled, crosslaminated sandstones in facies element T4. Pen is 15 cm (6 in.) long.

Figure 8.

Flaser bedding developed within current-rippled, crosslaminated sandstones in facies element T4. Pen is 15 cm (6 in.) long.

Outcrop Summary
Outcrop 3: Taman Viewpoint
LocationFor regional location, setting, Executive Summary, see introductory overview paper, chapter 13, this volume
Specifics10 km (6 mi) north of Kota Kinabalu and 2 km (1.2 mi) north of the village of Inanam.
Overall Outcrop Dimensions in Panel
LengthUp to 100 m (328 ft) along strike in the lower 40 m (131 ft) of the succession (quarry floor). Above this level, the lengths are ~10–20 m (33–66 ft) along strike.
Thickness~250 m (820 ft) in total, 185 m (607 ft) measured in detail.
Average Net-to-gross70%
Grain-size rangeFine- to medium-grained sandstones with local occurrences of coarse-grained, chert pebble sandstones. Shale clasts are locally reworked in the overbank facies.
General Outcrop Description and Stacking Pattern(See overview paper, chapter 13, this volume, for abbreviation definitions and legend for logs.) This section comprises an alternation of 10–25-m (33–82-ft)-thick, fine- to medium-grained, thick-bedded, blocky to FU/TnU sandstones (C1–4, S1–3) and 5–15-m (16–50-ft)-thick) and finer grained/muddier, thin-bedded, heterolithic deposits, which are also organized into FU/TkU sequences (T1–7) (Figure 1). The succession is divided into 4 megasequences (I–IV, from bottom to top) (Figure 1A, B):
Megasequence I (0–45 m [0–148 ft]) comprises two sand-dominated (80% sand), broadly FU/TnU sequences: (1) C1 to T1 (0–22 m [0–72 ft]), and (2) C2 to T2 (22–45 m [72–148 ft]). The C facies elements comprise medium- to thick-bedded, S3-Ta turbidites, displaying erosion surfaces, occasional cross-stratification (Figure 7), structureless beds, dewatering features, and large mud clasts (Figure 6). Discrete, medium-bedded turbidites at the top of the C2 facies element preserve a diverse suite of deep-water trace fossils, including Paleodictyon, Nereites, Helminthoide, and Cosmorhaphe (Figures 3A–C). Facies elements T1 and T2 both show FU/TnU trends characterized by thin-bedded Tbc turbidites (Figure 2).
Megasequence II (45–112 m [148–367 ft]) also forms two overall FU/TnU sequences: (1) C3 toT3 (45–78 m [148–256 ft]), and (2) S1 toT4 (78–112 m [256–367 ft]). The sandstone bodies comprise S3-Ta facies, which are largely structureless to weakly stratified. The succession fines upwards and terminates in a very distinctive, heterolithic unit (Figure 4). This uppermost interval (T4) is comprised of current-ripple, cross-laminated, fine-grained sandstones with numerous clay drapes (Figure 8), which superficially resemble flaser-bedded, tidal deposits (Figures 5A, B, C). Individual sandstone beds alternate with mudstone layers and frequently form small-scale (1–4 m [3–13 ft] thick) FU/TnU sequences (Figure 5C).
Megasequence III (112–163 m [367–535 ft]) and Megasequence IV (163–185 m [535–607 ft]) complete the section with three FU/TnU sequences: (1) C4–T5 (112–141 m [367–462 ft]), (2) S2–T6 (141–164 m [462–538 ft]), and (3) S3–T7 (164–185 m [538–607 ft]).
Depositional Setting InterpretationStacking patterns are dominated by vertically stacked, FU/TnU sequences developed within a multistory/multilateral turbidite sandstone complex. Individual FU/TnU sequences could represent either laterally migrating channels or gradually abandoned lobes to form a high net-to-gross, sheet-sandstone complex. Proximity to the nearby, deeply scoured, axial channels in Inanam Quarry favors a channel interpretation. Hence, the thickly bedded sandstones (C facies elements) could represent channel-axis deposits while the medium bedded (Ta-b) sandstones with delicate trace fossils may form channel- margin deposits. In contrast, the current-rippled, heterolithic/flaser-bedded facies are interpreted as levee deposits (e.g., T4).
Outcrop Summary
Outcrop 3: Taman Viewpoint
LocationFor regional location, setting, Executive Summary, see introductory overview paper, chapter 13, this volume
Specifics10 km (6 mi) north of Kota Kinabalu and 2 km (1.2 mi) north of the village of Inanam.
Overall Outcrop Dimensions in Panel
LengthUp to 100 m (328 ft) along strike in the lower 40 m (131 ft) of the succession (quarry floor). Above this level, the lengths are ~10–20 m (33–66 ft) along strike.
Thickness~250 m (820 ft) in total, 185 m (607 ft) measured in detail.
Average Net-to-gross70%
Grain-size rangeFine- to medium-grained sandstones with local occurrences of coarse-grained, chert pebble sandstones. Shale clasts are locally reworked in the overbank facies.
General Outcrop Description and Stacking Pattern(See overview paper, chapter 13, this volume, for abbreviation definitions and legend for logs.) This section comprises an alternation of 10–25-m (33–82-ft)-thick, fine- to medium-grained, thick-bedded, blocky to FU/TnU sandstones (C1–4, S1–3) and 5–15-m (16–50-ft)-thick) and finer grained/muddier, thin-bedded, heterolithic deposits, which are also organized into FU/TkU sequences (T1–7) (Figure 1). The succession is divided into 4 megasequences (I–IV, from bottom to top) (Figure 1A, B):
Megasequence I (0–45 m [0–148 ft]) comprises two sand-dominated (80% sand), broadly FU/TnU sequences: (1) C1 to T1 (0–22 m [0–72 ft]), and (2) C2 to T2 (22–45 m [72–148 ft]). The C facies elements comprise medium- to thick-bedded, S3-Ta turbidites, displaying erosion surfaces, occasional cross-stratification (Figure 7), structureless beds, dewatering features, and large mud clasts (Figure 6). Discrete, medium-bedded turbidites at the top of the C2 facies element preserve a diverse suite of deep-water trace fossils, including Paleodictyon, Nereites, Helminthoide, and Cosmorhaphe (Figures 3A–C). Facies elements T1 and T2 both show FU/TnU trends characterized by thin-bedded Tbc turbidites (Figure 2).
Megasequence II (45–112 m [148–367 ft]) also forms two overall FU/TnU sequences: (1) C3 toT3 (45–78 m [148–256 ft]), and (2) S1 toT4 (78–112 m [256–367 ft]). The sandstone bodies comprise S3-Ta facies, which are largely structureless to weakly stratified. The succession fines upwards and terminates in a very distinctive, heterolithic unit (Figure 4). This uppermost interval (T4) is comprised of current-ripple, cross-laminated, fine-grained sandstones with numerous clay drapes (Figure 8), which superficially resemble flaser-bedded, tidal deposits (Figures 5A, B, C). Individual sandstone beds alternate with mudstone layers and frequently form small-scale (1–4 m [3–13 ft] thick) FU/TnU sequences (Figure 5C).
Megasequence III (112–163 m [367–535 ft]) and Megasequence IV (163–185 m [535–607 ft]) complete the section with three FU/TnU sequences: (1) C4–T5 (112–141 m [367–462 ft]), (2) S2–T6 (141–164 m [462–538 ft]), and (3) S3–T7 (164–185 m [538–607 ft]).
Depositional Setting InterpretationStacking patterns are dominated by vertically stacked, FU/TnU sequences developed within a multistory/multilateral turbidite sandstone complex. Individual FU/TnU sequences could represent either laterally migrating channels or gradually abandoned lobes to form a high net-to-gross, sheet-sandstone complex. Proximity to the nearby, deeply scoured, axial channels in Inanam Quarry favors a channel interpretation. Hence, the thickly bedded sandstones (C facies elements) could represent channel-axis deposits while the medium bedded (Ta-b) sandstones with delicate trace fossils may form channel- margin deposits. In contrast, the current-rippled, heterolithic/flaser-bedded facies are interpreted as levee deposits (e.g., T4).
Architectural Element number on Outcrop Photo or Interpretation Panel
channel and Sheet Architectural ElementsC1C2C3C4S1S2S3
Length (beds extend across outcrop)>100 m (>328 ft)>100 m (>328 ft)>100 m (>328 ft)>100 m (>328 ft)>100 m (>328 ft)>100 m (>328 ft)>100 m (>328 ft)
Thickness17 m (56 ft)16.5 m (54 ft)30 m (98 ft)23.5 m (77 ft)20 m (65.5 ft)8 m (26 ft)11m (36 m)
Net-to-gross100%95%100%100%85%100%100%
Outcrop orientation for this element20°20°20°20°20°20°20°
Average paleocurrentNANANANANANANA
Typical facies successionTa–S3–TabS1–S2–Ta–Db–TcTa–S3Ta–S3Ta–Db–TcTa–S3Ta–S3
Sand-bed Architecture
Bed-thickness range0.2–3 m (0.7–9.8 ft)0.8–2.5 m (2.6–8.2 ft)1–3 m (3.3–9.8 ft)1–3 m (3.3–9.8 ft)0.5–1.3 m (1.6–4.3 ft)1–3 m (3.3–9.8 ft)2–3 m (6.6–9.8 ft)
Bed-thickness average1.5 m (4.9 ft)1.5 m (4.9 ft)2 m (6.6 ft)NA0.7 m (2.3 ft)NANA
Texture — grain size range; average; sortingMedium; NA; NAMedium; NA; NAMedium; NA; NAFine to medium; NA; NAMedium; NA; NAFine to medium; NA; NAFine to medium; NA; NA
Shale-bed Architecture
Bed-thickness rangeNA1 m (3.3 ft)NANA1–50 cm (0.4–20 in)NANA
Bed-thickness averageNANANANA0.02NANA
Architectural Element number on Outcrop Photo or Interpretation Panel
channel and Sheet Architectural ElementsC1C2C3C4S1S2S3
Length (beds extend across outcrop)>100 m (>328 ft)>100 m (>328 ft)>100 m (>328 ft)>100 m (>328 ft)>100 m (>328 ft)>100 m (>328 ft)>100 m (>328 ft)
Thickness17 m (56 ft)16.5 m (54 ft)30 m (98 ft)23.5 m (77 ft)20 m (65.5 ft)8 m (26 ft)11m (36 m)
Net-to-gross100%95%100%100%85%100%100%
Outcrop orientation for this element20°20°20°20°20°20°20°
Average paleocurrentNANANANANANANA
Typical facies successionTa–S3–TabS1–S2–Ta–Db–TcTa–S3Ta–S3Ta–Db–TcTa–S3Ta–S3
Sand-bed Architecture
Bed-thickness range0.2–3 m (0.7–9.8 ft)0.8–2.5 m (2.6–8.2 ft)1–3 m (3.3–9.8 ft)1–3 m (3.3–9.8 ft)0.5–1.3 m (1.6–4.3 ft)1–3 m (3.3–9.8 ft)2–3 m (6.6–9.8 ft)
Bed-thickness average1.5 m (4.9 ft)1.5 m (4.9 ft)2 m (6.6 ft)NA0.7 m (2.3 ft)NANA
Texture — grain size range; average; sortingMedium; NA; NAMedium; NA; NAMedium; NA; NAFine to medium; NA; NAMedium; NA; NAFine to medium; NA; NAFine to medium; NA; NA
Shale-bed Architecture
Bed-thickness rangeNA1 m (3.3 ft)NANA1–50 cm (0.4–20 in)NANA
Bed-thickness averageNANANANA0.02NANA
Architectural Element Number on Outcrop Photo or Interpretation Panel
Thin-bed Architectural ElementsT1T2T3T4T5T6T7
Length (beds extend across outcrop except*)>100 m (>328 ft)>100 m (>328 ft)>100 m (>328 ft)>100 m (>328 ft) *>100 m (>328 ft) *>100 m (>328 ft) *>100 m (>328 ft)
Thickness5.5 m (18 ft)6 m (19.7 ft)3 m (9.8 ft)15 m (49 ft)4.5 m (14.8 ft)14 m (46 ft)10 m (32.8 ft)
Net-to-gross50%20%20%50%20%10%100%
Texture — grain size range; average; sortingVery fine to fine; NA; NAVery fine to fine; NA; NAVery fine; NA; NAVery fine to fine; NA; NAVery fine to fine; NA; NAVery fine; NA; NANA
Outcrop orientation for this element20°20°20°20°20°NANA
Average paleocurrentNANANA45NANANA
Typical facies successionTc–TeTc–TeTc–Ta–Db–TeTc–Td–TeTc–Td–TeTc–Td–TeTe
Sand-bed Architecture
Bed-thickness range15–70 cm (6–28 in.)2–5 cm (0.8–2 in.)2–10 cm (0.8–3.9 in.)10–30 cm (3.9–12 in.)1–5 cm (0.4–2 in.)10–30 cm (3.9–12 in.)NA
Bed-thickness average0.2 m (0.7 ft)NANA0.15 m (0.5 ft)NANANA
Shale-bed Architecture
Bed-length averageNANANA0.001–1 m (0.003–3.3 ft)0.1–3 m (0.3–9.8 ft)0.001–6 m (0.003–20 ft)NA
Bed-thickness range0.2–1 m (0.7–3.3 ft)0.1–2.5 m (0.3–8.2 ft)5–20 cm (2–7.8 in.)2 cm (0.8 in.)NANANA
Bed-thickness average40 cm (16 in.)NANANANANANA
Architectural Element Number on Outcrop Photo or Interpretation Panel
Thin-bed Architectural ElementsT1T2T3T4T5T6T7
Length (beds extend across outcrop except*)>100 m (>328 ft)>100 m (>328 ft)>100 m (>328 ft)>100 m (>328 ft) *>100 m (>328 ft) *>100 m (>328 ft) *>100 m (>328 ft)
Thickness5.5 m (18 ft)6 m (19.7 ft)3 m (9.8 ft)15 m (49 ft)4.5 m (14.8 ft)14 m (46 ft)10 m (32.8 ft)
Net-to-gross50%20%20%50%20%10%100%
Texture — grain size range; average; sortingVery fine to fine; NA; NAVery fine to fine; NA; NAVery fine; NA; NAVery fine to fine; NA; NAVery fine to fine; NA; NAVery fine; NA; NANA
Outcrop orientation for this element20°20°20°20°20°NANA
Average paleocurrentNANANA45NANANA
Typical facies successionTc–TeTc–TeTc–Ta–Db–TeTc–Td–TeTc–Td–TeTc–Td–TeTe
Sand-bed Architecture
Bed-thickness range15–70 cm (6–28 in.)2–5 cm (0.8–2 in.)2–10 cm (0.8–3.9 in.)10–30 cm (3.9–12 in.)1–5 cm (0.4–2 in.)10–30 cm (3.9–12 in.)NA
Bed-thickness average0.2 m (0.7 ft)NANA0.15 m (0.5 ft)NANANA
Shale-bed Architecture
Bed-length averageNANANA0.001–1 m (0.003–3.3 ft)0.1–3 m (0.3–9.8 ft)0.001–6 m (0.003–20 ft)NA
Bed-thickness range0.2–1 m (0.7–3.3 ft)0.1–2.5 m (0.3–8.2 ft)5–20 cm (2–7.8 in.)2 cm (0.8 in.)NANANA
Bed-thickness average40 cm (16 in.)NANANANANANA

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