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Abstract

The West Crocker Formation is a major, basin-floor, submarine-fan complex that was deposited in an accretionary foredeep basin during the Oligocene to early Miocene (20–37 Ma) in the South china Sea and adjacent onshore Borneo (Figure 1). This sandstone-dominated succession is several kilometers thick (2.0 m), but may be up to 10 km (6.2 mi). It is more than 25,000 km2 (9652 mi2) in extent, and is exposed across a large part of the coastal ranges of Sabah, east Malaysia (Figures 2, 3). In terms of its size and extent, the West Crocker deep-water turbidite system, which forms part of the Crocker-Rajang fold belt, is comparable to other world-class modern and ancient turbidite systems. However, it is relatively poorly known (Stauffer, 1976; Tongkul, 1987; Crevello, 2002). This study focuses on the nature of the sedimentary facies and high-frequency depositional sequences. It is based on inland outcrops (quarries and road sections) in the vicinity of Kota Kinabalu (Figure 3), where the West Crocker Formation occurs as a series of steeply dipping, north-northeast- to south-southwest-trending, thrust-bounded outcrops. Although thrust faults typically define the bases and tops of the individual outcrop segments, the vertical sections that have been logged for this study are extensive (-150–300 m [492–984 ft] long) and contain only minor internal faulting. Hence, the latter has negligible impact on the interpretation of the stratigraphic elements. The outcrops are aligned along regional strike for -100 km (-62 mi), from north to south,

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