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During the Mesozoic, the present-day Antarctic Peninsula was the site of an active volcanic arc related to the eastwards subduc-tion of proto-Pacific oceanic crust. Alexander Island is the largest of the many islands that lie on the western (forearc) side of the Antarctic Peninsula. The island is comprised of a greenschist facies, accretionary prism complex (LeMay Group), unconformably overlain and faulted against the forearc sedimentary deposits of the Fossil Bluff Group.

The Fossil Bluff Group ranges in age from Middle Jurassic to latest Early Cretaceous and has a stratigraphic thickness of 7 km (4.4 mi). Aalonian-Tithonian clastic units are...

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