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Tengiz is a giant oil field on the northeastern coast of the Caspian Sea in Kazakhstan that produces a high-gravity, hydrogen sulfate (H2S)-rich oil from a reservoir containing abundant solid bitumen. Several lines of geochemical and petrographic evidence suggest there were at least two stages of petroleum migration into the Tengiz reservoir, both generated off structure from a marine source rock. The initial charge gave rise to solid bitumen, perhaps by a de-asphaltening process. Bitumen formation was followed by a period of hydrothermal activity, which thermally matured the bitumen to an insoluble pyrobitumen, produced bitumen-freepores, precipitated calcite...

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