Regional Stratigraphic, Depositional, and Diagenetic Patterns of the Interior of St. Lawrence Platform: The Lower Ordovician Romaine Formation, Western Anticosti Basin, Quebec
André Desrochers, Patricia Brennan-Alpert, Denis Lavoie, Guoxiang Chi, 2012. "Regional Stratigraphic, Depositional, and Diagenetic Patterns of the Interior of St. Lawrence Platform: The Lower Ordovician Romaine Formation, Western Anticosti Basin, Quebec", Great American Carbonate Bank: The Geology and Economic Resources of the Cambrian—Ordovician Sauk Megasequence of Laurentia, James Derby, Richard Fritz, Susan Longacre, William Morgan, Charles Sternbach
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Lower Ordovician to lower Middle Ordovician (upper Ibexian to lower Whiterockian; upper Sauk III supersequence) subtidal to peritidal carbonates of the Romaine Formation in the western Anticosti Basin record the evolution during the early Paleozoic of the low-latitude passive margin of eastern North America. A regional paleokarst unconformity, the super-Romaine unconformity corresponding to the North American Sauk-Tippecanoe megase-quence boundary developed on top of the Romaine carbonates during the early Middle Ordovician. The regional distribution of the passive-margin carbonates below the unconformity, however, suggests that significant foreland basin tectonic activity influenced the facies patterns in the uppermost Romaine Formation before the final demise of the Lower Ordovician great American carbonate bank, leading to its eventual subaerial exposure and erosion.
The Romaine Formation is mostly composed of peritidal and open-shelf carbonate rocks similar to those in age-equivalent El Paso, Ellenburger, Arbuckle, Knox, Beekmantown, and St. George Groups found along thepresent southern and eastern flanks of the North American craton. Flooding of the Precambrian basement for the first time in the area allowed deposition of a deepening to shallowing carbonate succession in the late Ibexian. A narrow coastal belt of peritidal carbonates onlapped onto the basement with time, but the Romaine platform was mostly covered byopen-marine subtidal carbonate deposits. The latter, assea level receded and offlap began, gave way to peritidal deposition in the latest Ibexian. However, a succession of lower Whiterockian subtidal limestone found locally in the offlapping carbonates indicates that open subtidal conditions resumed briefly before the super-Romaine unconformity formed. This Romaine stratigraphy suggests that two large-scale, third-order, transgressive-regressive sequences are present and can be correlated basinward into the subsurface beneath the northern part of Anticosti Island.
Petrographic and geochemical interpretations combined with other geologic and geophysical data provide evidence that the Lower Ordovician carbonates were hydrothermally altered at a regional scale to form porous, structurally controlled dolostone reservoirs. These structurally controlled hydrothermal dolomite reservoirs in the Romaine Formation provide a local but significant trapping mechanism for migrating hydrocarbons along the relatively unde-formed, southwesterly dipping homoclinal succession. Their signature has been recognized along several seismic lines and has served as an exploration guide in the recent round of exploration on Anticosti Island.
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Great American Carbonate Bank: The Geology and Economic Resources of the Cambrian—Ordovician Sauk Megasequence of Laurentia
The Great American Carbonate Bank (GACB) comprises the carbonates (and related siliciclastics) of the Sauk megasequence, which were deposited on and around the Laurentian continent during Cambrian through earliest Middle Ordovician, forming one of the largest carbonate-dominated platforms of the Phanerozoic. The Sauk megasequence, which ranges upwards of several thousand meters thick along the Bank's margin, consists of distinctive Lithofacies and fauna that are widely recognized throughout Laurentia. A refined biostratigraphic zonation forms the chronostratigraphic framework for correlating disparate outcrops and subsurface data, providing the basis for interpreting depositional patterns and the evolution of the Bank. GACB hydrocarbon fields have produced 4 BBO and 21 TCFG, mostly from reservoirs near the Sauk-Tippecanoe unconformity. The GACB is also a source of economic minerals and construction material and, locally, serves as either an aquifer or repository for injection of waste material. This Memoir comprises works on biostratigraphy, ichnology, stratigraphy, depositional facies, diagenesis, and petroleum and mineral resources of the GACB. It is dedicated to James Lee Wilson who first conceived of this publication and who worked on many aspects of the GACB during his long and illustrious career.