The earliest gravity survey in Cuba was conducted mostly in Matanzas and Las Villas provinces in 1932– 1935 by the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey.
Between 1935 and 1958, international oil companies conducted surveys in several local areas. Among these were the southern Pinar del Rio and the northern Isle of Pines; the coastal areas of northern Habana, Matanzas, Las Villas, and Camaguey; parts of southern Camaguey and southwestern Las Villas; and western Oriente. These surveys were of high precision but were not connected to each other.
In 1958, the U.S. Government (Coast and Geodetic Survey) began to establish gravity base stations in Cuba tied to Panama, which is part of the global gravity network with its origin in Potsdam. Four base stations were established: San Julian, Habana, Santa Clara, and Siguanea. After 1959, the Cuban Institute of Geography and Geodesy continued this work, and by 1962, the following bases had been established; 7 first class, 13 second class, and 2500 fillin. In 1962, in cooperation with the Institute of Earth Physics from the former Soviet Union's Academy of Science, the Cuban Institute of Geography and Geodesy established a new base network of 62 stations. From then on, all the surveys were tied to the base station network. As of 1971, some 60% of the island had been surveyed at scales of 1:50,000 and 1:100,000. In 1971, Ipatenko and Sashina published a 1:3,000,000 gravity map of Cuba.The most recentlypublished regional gravity maps were done as an insert in the 1985
Figures & Tables
The geology of Cuba has been a challenge to geologists because of features such as the presence of well-preserved Jurassic ammonites, the rich Tertiary foraminiferal faunas (including remarkable Paleogene orbitoids), the gigantic Upper Cretaceous rudistids, the spectacular limestone Mogotes of Pinar del Rio, the extensive outcrops of ultrabasic igneous rocks, the chromite and manganese deposits, and the extraordinary structural complexity. In addition to these features, the numerous petroleum seeps, many of them coming out of basic igneous rock, have attracted much attention.
It is interesting to read early papers by reputable geologists such as E. DeGoyler (1918), J. W. Lewis (1932), or R. H. Palmer (1945), and to realize how little was known or understood about the geology of the southern portion of the North American continent in the early part of the 20th century.
Much early understanding of the geology of Cuba resulted from a series of studies conducted between 1936 and 1946 by the University of Utrecht, Holland, under the direction of L. M. R. Rutten. Some resultant publications are Rutten (1936), MacGillavry (1937), Thiadens (1937a, b), Vermut (1937), van Wessen (1943), Keijzer (1945), Hermes (1945), and De Vletter (1946). These authors outlined the components of a classic geosyncline. Between the late 1930s and late 1950s, Cuban geologists and paleontologists, such as P. R. Ortega y Ros, J. Broderman, P. Bermudez, and J. F. Albear, published several articles about the island’s geology.
The search for oil has contributed significantly to the present understanding of the island’s geology.