Relative Permeability Measurements of Gas-water-hydrate Systems
Namit J. Jaiswal, Abhijit Y. Dandekar, Shirish L. Patil, Robert B. Hunter, Timothy S. Collett, 2009. "Relative Permeability Measurements of Gas-water-hydrate Systems", Natural Gas Hydrates—Energy Resource Potential and Associated Geologic Hazards, T. Collett, A. Johnson, C. Knapp, R. Boswell
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A primary mechanism likely to control potential gas production from gas-hydrate-bearing porous media is the gas-water two-phase flow during dissociation. Gas-water relative-permeability functions within gas-hydrate systems are poorly understood, and direct measurements within gas-hydrate-bearing porous media are difficult. In this study, we developed a new method for measuring gas-water relative permeability for laboratory-synthesized gas hydrate within porous media. The new experimental design allows gas hydrate to form within a porous media and allows the measurement of effective permeability and relative permeability for different saturation values. The relative permeability to gas and water was determined by applying the Johnson-Bossler-Neumann method. Finally, effective permeability and relative permeability data of gas and water phases are reported for gas-hydrate-saturated consolidated Oklahoma 100-mesh sand and Alaska North Slope subsurface sediments.
The results show significant reduction in permeability at increased gas-hydrate saturations. The results also suggest that the relative permeability determined from the unsteady-state core floods is primarily affected by gas-hydrate saturations. Furthermore, effective as well as relative permeabilities vary by the nature of gas-hydrate distribution for the same bulk saturation in different porous media. We believe that the experimental data obtained from this work will provide input data to reservoir modeling, fluid flow modeling, and development of relative-permeability-estimation methods for hydrate production. However, considerable additional experimental and theoretical work remains to develop an analytical or generalized model to predict the relative permeability for gas-hydrate reservoir simulation.
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Natural Gas Hydrates—Energy Resource Potential and Associated Geologic Hazards
In September 2004, the American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG) convened a Hedberg Research Conference in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada titled "Natural Gas Hydrates: Energy Resource Potential and Associated Geologic Hazards." As a continuation of the Hedberg Research Conference in Vancouver, the conveners of the conference and the editors of this Memoir have worked with more than 150 authors and coauthors to prepare this Memoir on gas hydrates. This publication follows the goals of the Hedberg conference; however, the contents of this Memoir were expanded to include all aspects of gas hydrates in nature. This Memoir contains 39 individual contributions, ranging from long topical summaries to shorter focused research papers. This Memoir has been published in two parts, with digital versions of all the complete research papers included on the enclosed CD. The hardcopy portion of the Memoir includes abstracts and several key figures for each of the contributions along with a complete copy of a gas hydrate technical review. The digital portion of this Memoir has been organized into a series of topical sections consisting of review articles, marine gas hydrate papers, and gas hydrate laboratory and modeling studies. Because of the rapidly emerging worldwide interest in gas hydrates, this comprehensive treatise on the geology of gas hydrates will be valuable to both the gas hydrate research community and exploration/development geologists working in arctic and deep marine environments.