Laboratory Measurements on Core-scale Sediment and Hydrate Samples to Predict Reservoir Behavior
Timothy J. Kneafsey, Yongkoo Seol, George J. Moridis, Liviu Tomutsa, Barry M. Freifeld, 2009. "Laboratory Measurements on Core-scale Sediment and Hydrate Samples to Predict Reservoir Behavior", Natural Gas Hydrates—Energy Resource Potential and Associated Geologic Hazards, T. Collett, A. Johnson, C. Knapp, R. Boswell
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Measurements on hydrate-bearing laboratory and field samples are needed to provide realistic bounds on parameters used in the numerical modeling of the production of natural gas from hydrate-bearing reservoirs. These parameters include thermal conductivity, permeability, relative permeability-saturation relationships, and capillary-pressure-saturation relationships. We have developed a technique to make hydrate-bearing samples, ranging in scale from core-plug-size to core-size, in the laboratory to facilitate making these measurements. In addition to pressure and temperature measurements, we use x-ray computed-tomography (CT) scanning to provide high-resolution spatial data providing insights on location-specific processes occurring in our samples. Computed tomography allows us to better attribute measured quantities to locations where processes occur and not to the bulk sample. Several methods are available to make gas hydrates in the laboratory, and the method impacts the behavior of the test sample and the parameters measured. We present CT data showing hydrate saturation in samples, and thermal conductivity of laboratory-made samples estimated using the inversion code iTOUGH2 for samples with known and unknown hydrate distributions. Knowledge of the hydrate distribution greatly improves the interpretation and confidence in property measurement.
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Natural Gas Hydrates—Energy Resource Potential and Associated Geologic Hazards
In September 2004, the American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG) convened a Hedberg Research Conference in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada titled "Natural Gas Hydrates: Energy Resource Potential and Associated Geologic Hazards." As a continuation of the Hedberg Research Conference in Vancouver, the conveners of the conference and the editors of this Memoir have worked with more than 150 authors and coauthors to prepare this Memoir on gas hydrates. This publication follows the goals of the Hedberg conference; however, the contents of this Memoir were expanded to include all aspects of gas hydrates in nature. This Memoir contains 39 individual contributions, ranging from long topical summaries to shorter focused research papers. This Memoir has been published in two parts, with digital versions of all the complete research papers included on the enclosed CD. The hardcopy portion of the Memoir includes abstracts and several key figures for each of the contributions along with a complete copy of a gas hydrate technical review. The digital portion of this Memoir has been organized into a series of topical sections consisting of review articles, marine gas hydrate papers, and gas hydrate laboratory and modeling studies. Because of the rapidly emerging worldwide interest in gas hydrates, this comprehensive treatise on the geology of gas hydrates will be valuable to both the gas hydrate research community and exploration/development geologists working in arctic and deep marine environments.