Rock-physics Models for Gas-hydrate Systems Associated with Unconsolidated Marine Sediments
Diana Sava, Bob Hardage, 2009. "Rock-physics Models for Gas-hydrate Systems Associated with Unconsolidated Marine Sediments", Natural Gas Hydrates—Energy Resource Potential and Associated Geologic Hazards, T. Collett, A. Johnson, C. Knapp, R. Boswell
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Rock-physics models are presented describing gas-hydrate systems associated with unconsolidated marine sediments. The goals are to predict gas-hydrate concentration from seismic attributes, such as primary (P)- and secondary (S)-wave velocities, and to analyze compressional-wave (PP) and converted-shear-wave (PS) reflectivity at the base of hydrate stability zones. Elastic properties of gas-hydrate systems depend on elastic properties of the host sediments, elastic properties of gas hydrates, concentration of hydrates in the sediments, and geometrical details of hydrate morphology within the host sediments. We consider various scenarios for hydrate occurrence, including load-bearing gas hydrate, pore-filling gas hydrate, and two different thin-layered modelsofgas hydrate intercalated with unconsolidated sediments. We show that the geometrical details of how gas hydrates are distributed within sediments have a significant impact on relationships between gas-hydrate concentrations and seismic attributes. Therefore, to accurately estimate gas-hydrate concentrations from seismic data, we need to understand how hydrates are formed and distributed within marine sediments. The modeling results for thin-layered hydrated morphologies show significant S-wave anisotropy, which may be used to infer gas-hydrate distributions and concentrations in alternating thin layers of hydrate-bearing sediments if multicomponent seismic data are available.
We compare the theoretical predictions of the isotropic rock-physics models with published laboratory measurements on synthetic gas-hydrate formed in unconsolidated sands. We find good agreement between the rock-physics model of disseminated, load-bearing gas hydrate and laboratory measurements, which suggests that, in this case, gas hydrates may act as part of the mineral frame of the unconsolidated sediments.
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In September 2004, the American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG) convened a Hedberg Research Conference in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada titled "Natural Gas Hydrates: Energy Resource Potential and Associated Geologic Hazards." As a continuation of the Hedberg Research Conference in Vancouver, the conveners of the conference and the editors of this Memoir have worked with more than 150 authors and coauthors to prepare this Memoir on gas hydrates. This publication follows the goals of the Hedberg conference; however, the contents of this Memoir were expanded to include all aspects of gas hydrates in nature. This Memoir contains 39 individual contributions, ranging from long topical summaries to shorter focused research papers. This Memoir has been published in two parts, with digital versions of all the complete research papers included on the enclosed CD. The hardcopy portion of the Memoir includes abstracts and several key figures for each of the contributions along with a complete copy of a gas hydrate technical review. The digital portion of this Memoir has been organized into a series of topical sections consisting of review articles, marine gas hydrate papers, and gas hydrate laboratory and modeling studies. Because of the rapidly emerging worldwide interest in gas hydrates, this comprehensive treatise on the geology of gas hydrates will be valuable to both the gas hydrate research community and exploration/development geologists working in arctic and deep marine environments.