Seismic Characterization of the Fiordland Gas-hydrate Province, New Zealand
Miko Fohrmann, Andrew R. Gorman, Ingo A. Pecher, 2009. "Seismic Characterization of the Fiordland Gas-hydrate Province, New Zealand", Natural Gas Hydrates—Energy Resource Potential and Associated Geologic Hazards, T. Collett, A. Johnson, C. Knapp, R. Boswell
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Occurrences of bottom-simulating reflectors (BSRs), related to the presence of gas hydrates, previously have been observed across a widespread zone on the active continental margin associated with the incipient Puysegur subduction zone, southeast of the South Island of New Zealand. However, unlike New Zealand's other large gas-hydrate province located on the active Hikurangi margin, east of the North Island, the Fiordland BSRs have not been described in terms of their seismic characteristics or distribution. Five seismic reflection data sets are analyzed here to identify a region of BSRs covering approximately 2200 km2 (849 mi2). The BSRs identified in this region exhibit classic characteristics indicative of a reflector at the base of the gas-hydrate stability zone: (1) they predominantly have a negative polarity, implying a decrease in acoustic impedance; (2) they crosscut strata; and (3) they have a variable amplitude-versus-offset response, indicating the presence of free gas below the reflector. Localized regions of acoustic blanking may be observed at some points above strong BSRs. The lack of information on the sedimentary characteristics of the Fiordlandmargin limits our ability to quantify the gas-hydrate deposits in this province. However, a significant proportion (16%) of the mapped region contains structural and stratigraphic features that can focus the upward flow of fluids and may therefore correspond to regions of increased hydrate concentrations.
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In September 2004, the American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG) convened a Hedberg Research Conference in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada titled "Natural Gas Hydrates: Energy Resource Potential and Associated Geologic Hazards." As a continuation of the Hedberg Research Conference in Vancouver, the conveners of the conference and the editors of this Memoir have worked with more than 150 authors and coauthors to prepare this Memoir on gas hydrates. This publication follows the goals of the Hedberg conference; however, the contents of this Memoir were expanded to include all aspects of gas hydrates in nature. This Memoir contains 39 individual contributions, ranging from long topical summaries to shorter focused research papers. This Memoir has been published in two parts, with digital versions of all the complete research papers included on the enclosed CD. The hardcopy portion of the Memoir includes abstracts and several key figures for each of the contributions along with a complete copy of a gas hydrate technical review. The digital portion of this Memoir has been organized into a series of topical sections consisting of review articles, marine gas hydrate papers, and gas hydrate laboratory and modeling studies. Because of the rapidly emerging worldwide interest in gas hydrates, this comprehensive treatise on the geology of gas hydrates will be valuable to both the gas hydrate research community and exploration/development geologists working in arctic and deep marine environments.