Gas Hydrate Offshore Vancouver Island, Northern Cascadia Margin
M. Riedel, Eleanor C. Willoughby, Nigel Edwards, Roy D. Hyndman, George D. Spence, Ross Chapman, Marc-Andre Chen, Ivana Novosel, Katrin Schwalenberg, 2009. "Gas Hydrate Offshore Vancouver Island, Northern Cascadia Margin", Natural Gas Hydrates—Energy Resource Potential and Associated Geologic Hazards, T. Collett, A. Johnson, C. Knapp, R. Boswell
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This chapter reviews the extensive geophysical studies and Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) results that provide constraints on the occurrence, distribution, and concentration of deep-sea gas hydrate beneath the northern Cascadia margin offshore Vancouver Island. Most of this information comes from a wide range of seismic surveys and includes the mapping of the bottom-simulating reflector (BSR), as well as estimating gas-hydrate and free-gas concentrations. Recent additional constraints on the distribution and concentration of gas hydrate come from sea-floor-towed, controlled-source electromagnetic surveying and sea-floor compliance studies. These surveys and studies have been primarily deployed around a cold vent field, where seismic data show several broad blank zones, interpreted as fault-related conduits for focused fluid-gas migration, and where gas hydrate has been recovered in piston cores at the sea floor.
Results from the ODP Leg 146 and the recently completed Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 311 further constrain concentration estimates for gas hydrate and free gas in the sediments along the margin and also give insight into the complex formation mechanisms and controlling factors for gas hydrate occurrence in an accretionary complex.
This summary was first presented in September 2004 at the AAPG Hedberg Research Conference on gas hydrates. Subsequently, 1 yr later, the drilling of IODP Expedition 311 resulted in a significant amount of new information and insight into the occurrence and formation processes of gas hydrate at the northern Cascadia margin. This chapter provides only a short summary of the results from that IODP Expedition. Reviews of the results from that drill coring and the downhole measurements are in progress.