Multicomponent Seismic Technology Assessment of Fluid-gas Expulsion Geology and Gas-hydrate Systems: Gulf of Mexico
B. A. Hardage, P. E. Murray, R. Remington, M. De Angelo, D. Sava, H. H. Roberts, W. Shedd, J. Hunt, Jr., 2009. "Multicomponent Seismic Technology Assessment of Fluid-gas Expulsion Geology and Gas-hydrate Systems: Gulf of Mexico", Natural Gas Hydrates—Energy Resource Potential and Associated Geologic Hazards, T. Collett, A. Johnson, C. Knapp, R. Boswell
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Four-component ocean-bottom-cable (4-C OBC) seismic data acquired in deep water across the Gulf of Mexico were used to study near-sea-floor geologic characteristics of fluid-gas expulsion systems. Although these 4-C OBC data were acquired to evaluate oil and gas prospects far below the sea floor, the data have great value for studying near-sea-floor geology. The research results summarized here stress the importance of the converted-shear-wave (P-SV) mode extracted from 4-C OBC data. In deep water, the P-SV mode creates an image of near-sea-floor strata that has a spatial resolution an order of magnitude better than the resolution of compressional wave (P-P) data regardless of whether the P-P data are acquired with OBC technology or with conventional towed-cable seismic technology. This increased resolution allows the P-SV mode to define seismic sequences, seismic facies, small-throw faults, and small-scale structures that cannot be detected with P-P seismic data.
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In September 2004, the American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG) convened a Hedberg Research Conference in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada titled "Natural Gas Hydrates: Energy Resource Potential and Associated Geologic Hazards." As a continuation of the Hedberg Research Conference in Vancouver, the conveners of the conference and the editors of this Memoir have worked with more than 150 authors and coauthors to prepare this Memoir on gas hydrates. This publication follows the goals of the Hedberg conference; however, the contents of this Memoir were expanded to include all aspects of gas hydrates in nature. This Memoir contains 39 individual contributions, ranging from long topical summaries to shorter focused research papers. This Memoir has been published in two parts, with digital versions of all the complete research papers included on the enclosed CD. The hardcopy portion of the Memoir includes abstracts and several key figures for each of the contributions along with a complete copy of a gas hydrate technical review. The digital portion of this Memoir has been organized into a series of topical sections consisting of review articles, marine gas hydrate papers, and gas hydrate laboratory and modeling studies. Because of the rapidly emerging worldwide interest in gas hydrates, this comprehensive treatise on the geology of gas hydrates will be valuable to both the gas hydrate research community and exploration/development geologists working in arctic and deep marine environments.