Borehole Image Log Technology: Application Across the Exploration and Production Life Cycle
Michael Pöppelreiter, García-Carballido Carmen, Martin Kraaijveld, 2010. "Borehole Image Log Technology: Application Across the Exploration and Production Life Cycle", Dipmeter and Borehole Image Log Technology, M. Pöppelreiter, C. García-Carballido, M. Kraaijveld
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The ever-increasing energy demand requires recovery from existing fields to be maximized, a process mostly dependent on accurate reservoir models. Borehole imaging is one of the fastest and most precise methods for collecting subsurface data (Figure 1). Borehole imaging can feed even millimeter-scale information into these models (Paillet et al., 1990). Increasingly, borehole images can be transmitted and integrated into reservoirmodels while drilling, which is an important step toward real-time field optimization (Sparkman, 2003). Recent advances in modeling software allow the fully integrated use of image data in reservoir models for the first time. As a result, the status of borehole image technology is shifting from being a niche application to being a key component of both static and dynamic reservoir models. Technological advances in borehole imaging during the past 5 yr have facilitated these developments. One important area of progress is the introduction of highresolution oil-base imagers (Pavlovic, 2002). The quality of recent images in oil-base mud systems comes close to wireline image resolution. Even more significant is the development of high-resolution logging-while-drilling (LWD) tools (Ritter et al., 2004) that now rival traditional wireline images. The latest generation of LWD imaging tools can detect high-permeability streaks only a few decimeters thick and can track them for long distances using advanced, image-based geosteering technology (Prosser et al., 2006).
Borehole imaging is now on its way to becoming a mature technology, and it is used in increasingly advanced applications
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Borehole imaging is among the fastest and most accurate methods for collecting high resolution subsurface data. Recent breakthroughs in acquisition, tool design, and modeling software provide real-time subsurface images of incredible detail, from the drill bit straight to a workstation. Associated interpretation workflows offer the high level of detail that is needed to make operational decision and to increase the predictability of subsurface models. Many exploration and production companies have acquired a wealth of dipmeter and image log data. The data are readily available and provide, for example the orientation of fractures and fluvial channels in space. Further applications of borehole imaging technology include matrix and fracture characterization, pore-type partitioning, geosteering, and in-situ stress determination. Exciting new applications are found in enhanced oil recovery, carbon dioxide sequestration, and geothermal projects. In addition, borehole image data are paramount to unlocking unconventional plays such as shale gas and coal-bed methane. AAPG Memoir 92 portrays key applications of dipmeter and image log data across the exploration and production life cycle. (Continued)