Alexander R. Papp, 1998. "Depositional Environments and Sedimentary Geology Splits, Partings, Rider Coals, and Subseams", Atlas of Coal Geology, Alexander R. Papp, James C. Hower, Douglas C. Peters
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The depositional environments of coal-bearing strata are dynamic systems and, therefore, splits are common in the sequence (Pictures 1 and 2). High-energy channels (framework facies), which transport sediment, can occur adjacent to areas of low energy or quiescence, such as a peat swamp (see Depositional Systems, Volume 1). With suitable subsidence rates and no interruptions, the swamp can accumulate a considerable thickness of peat, subsequently forming a thick seam of coal. In contrast, the swamp could be inundated with sediment by flooding (Picture 3) or breach of the channel levee (i.e., flood plain and crevasse splay deposits of the non-framework facies) or by lateral migration of the adjacent channel facies. Depending on the subsequent depositional conditions, the swamp could reestablish over the sediment package forming a "split" in the coal seam.
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This volume of the “Atlas of Coal Geology” provides 393 images on various subject matters related to coal deposits and coal resource utilization. The supporting text provides an introductory overview of coal exploration, mining, and coalbed methane (CBM) development, followed by discussions on various megascopic aspects of coal geology (microscopic aspects are covered in Volume 2). Because of the vast subject matter, many generalities had to be made in the text. References are included to guide those interested to more detailed discussions. All citations within the document are linked to the detailed reference list for this volume. The overriding theme for this publication is that a picture is worth a thousand words.