Alexander R. Papp, 1998. "Depositional Environments and Sedimentary Geology Splits, Partings, Rider Coals, and Subseams", Atlas of Coal Geology, Alexander R. Papp, James C. Hower, Douglas C. Peters
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The depositional environments of coal-bearing strata are dynamic systems and, therefore, splits are common in the sequence (Pictures 1 and 2). High-energy channels (framework facies), which transport sediment, can occur adjacent to areas of low energy or quiescence, such as a peat swamp (see Depositional Systems, Volume 1). With suitable subsidence rates and no interruptions, the swamp can accumulate a considerable thickness of peat, subsequently forming a thick seam of coal. In contrast, the swamp could be inundated with sediment by flooding (Picture 3) or breach of the channel levee (i.e., flood plain and crevasse splay deposits of the non-framework facies) or by lateral migration of the adjacent channel facies. Depending on the subsequent depositional conditions, the swamp could reestablish over the sediment package forming a "split" in the coal seam.