1999. "Fan Models", An Introduction to the Analysis of Ancient Turbidite Basins from an Outcrop Perspective, Emiliano Mutti, Roberto Tinterri, Eduard Remacha, Nicola Mavilla, Stefano Angella, Luca Fava
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In the early 70’s, Normark (1970), Mutti and Ghibaudo (1972) and Mutti and Ricci Lucchi (1972) introduced their popular fan models which attempted to interpret turbidite sedimentation within the framework of deep-sea fan depositional systems.
Normark (1970) developed a model of fan growth based on the study of small modern fans from the California borderland basins and emphasized the importance of depositional bulges or suprafans developed at the terminus of fan valleys (Fig. 13). Each suprafan is described as a convex-upward depositional feature with shallow and ephemeral channels in its proximal sector passing downfan into progressively smoother zones characterized by fine-grained sediments.
Mutti and Ghibaudo (1972) and Mutti and Ricci Lucchi (1972) proposed a model for ancient turbidite systems in which for the first time turbidite facies associations were interpreted in terms of specific deep-sea fan environments. Mutti and Ghibaudo (1972) emphasized the strong depositional similarities between fluvial-dominated deltas and deep-sea fans, suggesting a direct comparison between deltaic channels and mouth bars and turbidite channels and lobes respectively (Fig. 14). Mutti and Ricci Lucchi (1972) offered a more comprehensive model where turbidite facies associations were interpreted in terms of slope, fan and basin plain environments and specific facies associations were interpreted as diagnostic of inner, middle and outer fan sub-environments (Fig. 15). Mutti and Ricci Lucchi (1972, 1974) also stressed the overall progradational character of many ancient submarine fan systems and emphasized the thinning- and fining-upward character of channel-fill sequences contrasting with the thickening- and coarsening-upward character of turbidite sandstone lobes.
An attempt to combine the