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The Caspian Basin is one of the largest and most attractive petroleum basins in the world, even after more than 100 yr of production. Numerous rich oil and gas fields in the Caspian are present, and the potential for further exploration and development exists. However, the petroleum system in the northern part of the Apsheron anticlinorium is poorly understood. This study focuses on South Caspian reservoir components of the petroleum systems in the northern part of the postdepositional Apsheron Ridge. Two sets of three-dimensional (3-D) seismic data, acquired in the 1990s, were provided for study.

The research focuses on the seismic expression of the Productive Series deposited in a lake or lacustrine environment. It was determined that tectonic control on sedimentation during deposition of the Middle Productive Series is the principal control on reservoir development. The documentation of relative lake level change is important because it impacts reservoir facies architecture and potential reservoir quality in the study area. It was further concluded that in some locations, seals may have been breached by reactivation of basement faults.

Seismic attributes including amplitude and spectral decomposition were applied to the 3-D seismic data for interpretation. Valleys and channels that have been interpreted through these seismic attributes may represent feeder systems to downslope depositional lobes with better down-structure reservoir quality. High-amplitude anomalies off the structures are indicative of these depositional lobes. Lobes that are faulted and isolated in the flank areas of the structures may exhibit better seal capacity.

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