Productive Series Play of the Paleo-Volga Delta, South Caspian Basin: Exploration History, Sedimentation, and Petroleum System
Olive W. (Terry) Baganz, Elchin Bagirov, Gerald Eric Michael, Al Shultz, 2012. "Productive Series Play of the Paleo-Volga Delta, South Caspian Basin: Exploration History, Sedimentation, and Petroleum System", Lacustrine Sandstone Reservoirs and Hydrocarbon Systems, Olive W. (Terry) Baganz, Yuval Bartov, Kevin M. Bohacs, Dag Nummedal
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A long history of petroleum production from the South Caspian Basin demonstrates this region's significant hydrocarbon resources. The world's first oil wells were located here in the early 19th century, and mechanized drilling led to increasingly advanced extraction programs from the mid-1800s into the Soviet era. Offshore areas, first explored in the 1930s, remain the object of significant interest and potential.
Hydrocarbon reservoirs belong to the Productive Series (Miocene-Pliocene), a fluviolacustrine complex of sediment delivered by the paleo-Volga river system. Extremely high subsidence rates and closure of the lake basin contributed to a distinctive stratigraphy with basinwide layer continuity.
A combination of oil-prone to mixed gas/oil basinal marine source rocks of Oligocene to Miocene sourced the petroleum. Hydrocarbon generation started in the basin about 4 Ma, with most generation and expulsion occurring in the last 2 m.y., the same time structures began to form in the basin. High fluid pressure gradients appear to inhibit the development of effective traps with seals, particularly offshore Azerbaijan where the occurrence of shale exceeds sand.
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Many publications on lacustrine systems concentrate on reconstructing paleo-environments, deciphering paleoclimate or estimating hydrocarbon source potential. This is the first memoir to give attention to describing the occurrence, distribution and character of sandstones in various lake settings. the volume is the outcome of a Hedberg Conference held in Baku, Azerbaijan in 2004. The memoir is divided into four sections beginning with a global overview, and followed by two sections covering lacustrine systems in compressional and extensional regimes. The volume concludes with a series of papers on modern lake regimes.