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Seismic Stratigraphic Evolution of the Miocene-Pliocene Segitiga Platform, East Natuna Sea, Indonesia: The Origin, Growth, and Demise of an Isolated Carbonate Platform

By
Steven L. Bachtel
Steven L. Bachtel
ExxonMobil Upstream Research Company, Houston, Texas
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Randal D. Kissling
Randal D. Kissling
ExxonMobil Development Company, Houston, Texas
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Dwi Martono
Dwi Martono
Pertamina, Inc., Jakarta, Indonesia
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Setya P. Rahardjanto
Setya P. Rahardjanto
ExxonMobil Oil Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia
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Paul A. Dunn
Paul A. Dunn
ExxonMobil Upstream Research Company, Houston, Texas
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Bruce A. MacDonald
Bruce A. MacDonald
ExxonMobil Production Company, Houston, Texas
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Published:
January 01, 2004

Abstract

Ahigh-resolution, two-dimensional seismic survey covering 7500 km2 provides an unprecedented view of the evolution of a Miocene-Pliocene carbonate platform in the East Natuna-Sarawak Sea, Indonesia. The Segitiga Platform (1400 km2) contains Terumbu Formation carbonate strata as much as 1800 m thick that were deposited in platform interior, reef and shoal margin, and slope to basin environments. The Segitiga Platform was subdivided into 12 seismic sequences that demonstrate a history of (1) initial isolation, (2) progradation and coalescence, (3) backstepping and shrinkage, and (4) terminal drowning. Interpretations of seismic facies maps for each sequence were used to help illustrate platform history. These seismic facies maps indicate that the Segitiga Platform originated as three smaller platforms on extensional fault-block highs. Deep intraplatform seaways separated these smaller platforms. Progradation of shallow-water carbonates filled the seaways during a phase of coalescence and the three platforms were amalgamated to form a merged composite platform (1400 km2; middle-upper Miocene). A rapid relative rise in sea level at the end of Miocene time caused a major backstepping of the carbonate margins (and a concomitant drowning of the adjacent Natuna field carbonate platform to the east) resulting in a platform of greatly reduced size (600 km2) during the lower Pliocene. Rapid subsidence, combined with an eustatic rise at the end of the early Pliocene, caused terminal drowning of the Segitiga Platform. The platform was buried by younger siliciclastics of the Muda Formation.

Eustatic sea level change controlled the timing of sequence-boundary formation, but structural movements modified internal sequence character and facies distribution. Faulting created topography that acted as templates for the initiation of carbonate platform deposition and provided pedestals for the localizationofbackstepped platforms. Cessation of faulting may have instigated progradation of the platform resulting from the deceleration of accommodation-space production. Regional subsidence may have controlled the location and extent of platform backstepping. Geographic variability in sequence stacking of coeval platform margins is observed over relatively short distances. Progradation is most strongly developed on the leeward side of the platform, but increased accommodation resulting from the rapid local subsidence or changing ocean-ographic currents also influenced the direction and magnitude of progradation.

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Contents

AAPG Memoir

Seismic Imaging of Carbonate Reservoirs and Systems

Gregor P. Eberli
Gregor P. Eberli
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Jose Luis Masaferro
Jose Luis Masaferro
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J. F. “Rick” Sarg
J. F. “Rick” Sarg
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American Association of Petroleum Geologists
Volume
81
ISBN electronic:
9781629810058
Publication date:
January 01, 2004

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