Integrated Reservoir Characterization of a Carbonate Ramp Reservoir, South Dagger Draw Field, New Mexico: Seismic Data Are Only Part of the Story
Scott W. Tinker, Donald H. Caldwell, Denise M. Cox, Laura C. Zahm, Lisë Brinton, 2004. "Integrated Reservoir Characterization of a Carbonate Ramp Reservoir, South Dagger Draw Field, New Mexico: Seismic Data Are Only Part of the Story", Seismic Imaging of Carbonate Reservoirs and Systems, Gregor P. Eberli, Jose Luis Masaferro, J. F. “Rick” Sarg
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South Dagger Draw (SDD) field, located in southeast New Mexico, produces hydrocarbons from complex sigmoid-oblique clinoforms of the Pennsylvanian Canyon and Cisco Formations. South Dagger Draw field, a combination structuralstratigraphic trap, represents the northern extension of the Indian Basin field. Through February 2001, the Indian Basin and SDD fields together had produced nearly 23 million bbl of oil and 2 tcf of gas from Marathon Oil Company-held acreage. Vuggy porosity, formed dominantly in algal biostromes and bioherms located at the rampmargin position of each clinoform, represents the primary reservoir. Vugs were formed by acidic hydrothermal fluids that migrated upward along joints and were baffled beneath shales, resulting in dissolution zones that are controlled by the interplay between structural joints and stratigraphic shales and carbonates.
Data used in the study include logs, cores, modern wire-line log suites, borehole image logs, and three-dimensional (3-D) acoustic impedance values from inversion of seismic data. Seismic data provide interwell information helpful for determining the present-day structure of the field but not particularly useful for interpreting the stratigraphy. High-frequency sequence-stratigraphic interpretation, guided by a depositional model derived from description of cores and outcrops, was accomplished using a necessary combination of well logs, cores, and seismic data. The sequence-stratigraphic interpretation served as input for multiple iterative seismic inversions and provided the framework for the integrated 3-D geologic model.
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Recent advances in seismic acquisition, processing and visualization techniques image carbonate strata with unprecedented resolution. This volume documents the current state of the art in seismic imaging and interpreting of carbonate systems and captures the dynamics of the carbonate system on a large exploration scale and on a small reservoir scale. The book emphasizes the newest approaches in seismic visualization, seismic sedimentology and stratigraphy, seismic attribute analysis and their application for building improved 3-D reservoir models. Among the topics covered are the delineation of the complex histories of carbonate platform sequences from seismic data, the relationships between geometries and forming processes, the imaging of faults for improved mapping of potential fluid migration pathways, and use of seismic attributes for the extraction of rock properties in the sedimentary bodies. The book illustrates the power of integrating seismic and geological data to better predict of the architecture and heterogeneities in carbonate depositional systems. As such the book will be a useful reference for both geologists and geophysicists.