Sequence-Stratigraphic, Petrophysical, and Multicomponent Seismic Analysis of a Shelf-Margin Reservoir: San Andres Formation (Permian), Vacuum Field, New Mexico, United States
Matthew J. Pranter, Neil F. Hurley, Thomas L. Davis, 2004. "Sequence-Stratigraphic, Petrophysical, and Multicomponent Seismic Analysis of a Shelf-Margin Reservoir: San Andres Formation (Permian), Vacuum Field, New Mexico, United States", Seismic Imaging of Carbonate Reservoirs and Systems, Gregor P. Eberli, Jose Luis Masaferro, J. F. “Rick” Sarg
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This chapter describes an integrated approach to reservoir characterization and three-dimensional (3-D) geologic modeling of the San Andres Formation at Vacuum field, New Mexico, United States. We present techniques to identify significant heterogeneities within a carbonate reservoir using stratigraphic, petrophysical, and 3-D multicomponent seismic data. This integrated approach provides a detailed static description of reservoir heterogeneity and improved delineation of the reservoir framework in terms of flow units.
We use a petrophysics-based method to identify hydraulic flow units within a sequence-stratigraphic framework. Flow units are characterized within high-frequency carbonate sequences through analysis of the vertical variation of flow (kh) and storage capacity (ϕh) and pore-throat radius (R35) associated with successions of subtidal, intertidal, and supratidal rocks. Pore-throat radii from cored wells are used to modify the empirically derived Winland equation to estimate values of pore-throat radius in non-cored wells. Flow profiles, constructed from log porosities and neural-network permeabilities, are correlated and used to build a 3-D geologic-model framework.
Characterization of both matrix and fracture properties within a reservoir is possible using 3-D multicomponent seismic data and wire-line logs. Compressional- and shear-wave amplitude attributes together provide more accurate porosity estimates than those determined from compressional-wave data alone. Shear-wave anisotropy measurements provide information about inferred fracture density and orientation that can be used to modify permeability models to account for regions with open fractures.
Because of this study, reservoir-simulation models that incorporate modified permeability distributions more accurately account for unexpected early CO2-breakthrough times observed in the field. In addition, flow-simulation results indicate that the need to upscale the geologic model was significantly reduced or eliminated by describing flow units using the combined sequence-stratigraphic- and petrophysics-based method.
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Recent advances in seismic acquisition, processing and visualization techniques image carbonate strata with unprecedented resolution. This volume documents the current state of the art in seismic imaging and interpreting of carbonate systems and captures the dynamics of the carbonate system on a large exploration scale and on a small reservoir scale. The book emphasizes the newest approaches in seismic visualization, seismic sedimentology and stratigraphy, seismic attribute analysis and their application for building improved 3-D reservoir models. Among the topics covered are the delineation of the complex histories of carbonate platform sequences from seismic data, the relationships between geometries and forming processes, the imaging of faults for improved mapping of potential fluid migration pathways, and use of seismic attributes for the extraction of rock properties in the sedimentary bodies. The book illustrates the power of integrating seismic and geological data to better predict of the architecture and heterogeneities in carbonate depositional systems. As such the book will be a useful reference for both geologists and geophysicists.