Structural Framework of Lower Cretaceous Half Grabens in the Presalt Section of the Southeastern Continental Margin of Brazil
Oscar López-Gamundi, Roberto Barragan, 2013. "Structural Framework of Lower Cretaceous Half Grabens in the Presalt Section of the Southeastern Continental Margin of Brazil", Tectonics and Sedimentation: Implications for Petroleum Systems, Dengliang Gao
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Recently acquired and processed prestack depth-migrated seismic data have helped to identify the key elements of the asymmetric Lower Cretaceous half grabens in the presalt, synrift-to-postrift transitional (sag) section of the Greater Campos Basin (Santos, Campos, and Espirito Santo basins), offshore Brazil. Evidence of such a structural configuration is provided by seismic reflection geometries, such as fanning (strongly divergent internal configuration) on fault borders, thinning (convergent internal configuration), and onlap onto flexural margins. Moreover, compaction synclines over basement footwall cutoff points have been identified. In poorly imaged areas, the termination of the divergent seismic configuration can be used to place the master fault of the half graben. Differential compaction at half-graben border fault margins caused by the contrasting nature of rift-fills and adjacent basement highs is postulated to have been a critical factor for the creation of counterregional dips necessary to form structural four-way closures at the sag level. Although the sag sequence extends beyond the underlying rift fill, commonly onlapping or draping over the basement, the key risk in these types of traps is the possibility that the overlying salt layer may rest directly on the basement. Fault-plane reflections indicate the predominance of planar fault-plane geometries. This is consistent with the absence of rollover anticlines or hanging-wall antiforms, which are a direct function of nonplanar listric faults. The final configuration of the traps may also be modified by important basin-scale factors (i.e., uplift resulting from magmatic underplating in the Santos Basin).
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The influence of tectonics on sedimentation and hydrocarbon accumulation is different among extensional, strike-slip, and contractional structural styles. Addressing the role of different structural styles and syntectonic sedimentation in petroleum systems is essential to assess the hydrocarbon potential of sedimentary basins. This 18-chapter volume is small enough to focus on the interplay among tectonics, sedimentation, and petroleum systems. Yet it is big enough to cover the diversity of structural styles in important petroliferous sedimentary basins around the globe, including those in west Africa, east Africa, east Brazil, east United States of America, Gulf of Mexico, South China Sea, the Russian Arctic, and the Mediterranean Sea.