Development of Synthetic Layer Dip Adjacent to Normal Faults
David A. Ferrill, Alan P. Morris, Darrell W. Sims, Deborah J. Waiting, Shutaro Hasegawa, 2005. "Development of Synthetic Layer Dip Adjacent to Normal Faults", Faults, Fluid Flow, and Petroleum Traps, Rasoul Sorkhabi, Yoshihiro Tsuji
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Field analyses of normal faulting illustrate that synthetic layer dip associated with normal faults is a common feature of extensional fault systems. These synthetic dip panels are developed where layers on upthrown, downthrown, or both sides of a normal fault dip toward the downthrown side of the fault. Synthetic dip panels adjacent to normal faults should be expected at some scale in all normal fault systems. In addition to faults that developed in the strata with a regional dip, five fault-related mechanisms for the development of synthetic dip are faulted monocline (fault tip-line folding), antilistric fault bend, distributed shear, shear in relay zone of vertically and/or laterally segmented faults, and fault block impingement and lateral contraction. Development of synthetic dip accommodates a component of throw by tilting or folding, thereby reducing the offset or true displacement on the related normal faults. Fault block deformation is strongly dependent on the mechanisms that produce synthetic dip panels and may influence fault zone and fault block permeability. Depending on strat-igraphic and structural relationships, synthetic dip panels can produce a downthrown closure for hydrocarbon trapping, provide fluid migration and/or production communication pathways across faults, or produce barriers to fluid communication across faults.