Analog Models of Faults Associated with Salt Doming and Wrenching: Application to offshore United Arab Emirates
Yasuhiro Yamada, Hitoshi Okamura, Yoshihiko Tamura, Futoshi Tsuneyama, 2005. "Analog Models of Faults Associated with Salt Doming and Wrenching: Application to offshore United Arab Emirates", Faults, Fluid Flow, and Petroleum Traps, Rasoul Sorkhabi, Yoshihiro Tsuji
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Regional stress has a significant impact on fault development during the formation of salt dome structures. To examine such effects of wrenching, we conducted a series of analog experiments of updoming using dry, granular materials and observed the deformation on the top free surface. The experiments included three deformation styles: (1) updoming followed by wrenching, (2) simultaneous updoming and wrenching, and (3) wrenching followed by updoming. In the first series of the experiments, the faults produced by simple updoming were overprinted by two strikeslip fault systems that were generated by the subsequent wrenching. The second series of experiments with the configuration of simultaneous updoming and wrenching generated normal faults in a direction perpendicular to relative extension by the wrench. In the third series of experiments, the Riedel and anti-Riedel shear faults formed by wrenching were deformed by the subsequent updoming and were overprinted by the faults related to the updoming.
These experimental results are applied to the fault systems observed above dome structures in the United Arab Emirates region, where extensive faults in the northwest— southeast direction have developed. By analogy, these faultswere probably formed during an updoming and simultaneous wrenching. The direction of simple shear inferred from a comparison of real faults and experimental results suggests that dextral wrenching caused by the Oman stress regime during the Late Cretaceous affected the region at the time of the updoming.
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Japan National Oil Corporation (JNOC) (presently Japan Oil, Gas and Metals National Corporation) launched a multidisciplinary and international project on the Evaluation of Traps and Seals in 1997. The project ended in 2003. This publication resulted from that project and includes JNOC research articles as well as contributions from industry and academia. The 17 papers in this volume cover topics such as a method to estimate the amount of oil/gas accumulation using the concept of equivalent grain size in seal rock, and oil/gas migration to and spill-point geometry of petroleum traps; two case studies of fault seal assessment applied to normal faults in Tertiary clastic reservoirs in offshore Sarawak and offshore Gulf of Thailand; and physical analog studies of the development of extensional faults. This publication also contains a valuable bibliography of nearly 1000 additional articles and books published on fault traps, fault seal processes, and fault-related fluid flow in sedimentary basins, for use as a reference tool to delve into publications preceding this volume.