Prediction of Reservoir Fluid Composition Using Basin and Petroleum System Modeling: A Study from the Jeanne D’Arc Basin, Eastern Canada
Friedemann Baur, Ralf Littke, Rolando di Primio, Hans Wielens, 2012. "Prediction of Reservoir Fluid Composition Using Basin and Petroleum System Modeling: A Study from the Jeanne D’Arc Basin, Eastern Canada", Basin Modeling: New Horizons in Research and Applications, Kenneth E. Peters, David J. Curry, Marek Kacewicz
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Apetroleum system modeling (PSM) study was performed on the Jeanne d’Arc Basin, offshore eastern Canada, to study the constraints and reliability of the reconstruction of petroleum reservoir filling histories. Petroleum generation and phase behavior were analyzed using phase-predictive compositional kinetic models (PhaseKinetics) determined by pyrolysis of Egret Member source rock samples. Various additional calibration data (well, rock, and fluid data), such as porosity, permeability, temperature (bottom-hole temperature, apatite fission tracks, fluid inclusions), maturity (vitrinite reflectance), and petroleum properties, such as API, gas-oil ratio, formation volume factor, and saturation pressure were integrated into this model.
Different charge scenarios were tested for the effects of open and closed faults in the carrier system to reconstruct the most likely migration pathways for the petroleum that is trapped in the Terra Nova (TN) oil field. The most probable filling history includes charge to the reservoir from a local kitchen and a second kitchen located between Hibernia and TN that was responsible for the long-range migration. In the model, the hydrocarbons migrate from this kitchen in the northwest part of the study area along pathways defined by closed transbasin faults from the north into the field. This new migration concept differs from the traditional explanation based on geochemical measurements only von der Dick et al., 1989), which infers that local generation was solely responsible for filling the TN field. The latter can be disproved based on a simple mass balance calculation.
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Temperature-time–based first-order kinetic models are currently used to predict hydrocarbon generation and maturation in basin modeling. Physical chemical theory, however, indicates that water pressure should exert significant control on the extent of these hydrocarbon generation and maturation reactions. We previously heated type II Kimmeridge Clay source rock in the range of 310 to 350°C at a water pressure of 500 bar to show that pressure retarded hydrocarbon generation. This study extended a previous study on hydrocarbon generation from the Kimmeridge Clay that investigated the effects of temperature in the range of 350 to 420°C at water pressures as much as 500 bar and for periods of 6, 12, and 24 hr. Although hydrocarbon generation reactions at temperatures of 420°C are controlled mostly by the high temperature, pressure is found to have a significant effect on the phase and the amounts of hydrocarbons generated.
In addition to hydrocarbon yields, this study also includes the effect of temperature, time, and pressure on maturation. Water pressure of 390 bar or higher retards the vitrinite reflectance by an average of ca. 0.3% Ro compared with the values obtained under low pressure hydrous conditions across the temperature range investigated. Temperature, pressure, and time all control the vitrinite reflectance. Therefore, models to predict hydrocarbon generation and maturation in geological basins must include pressure in the kinetic models used to predict the extent of these reactions.