Structural Evolution, Temperature, and Maturity of Sedimentary Basins in the Netherlands: Results of Combined Structural and Thermal Two-Dimensional Modeling
Susanne Nelskamp, Jan D. van Wees, Ralf Littke, 2012. "Structural Evolution, Temperature, and Maturity of Sedimentary Basins in the Netherlands: Results of Combined Structural and Thermal Two-Dimensional Modeling", Basin Modeling: New Horizons in Research and Applications, Kenneth E. Peters, David J. Curry, Marek Kacewicz
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Structural modeling combined with basin modeling was used to demonstrate the influence of the structural history on hydrocarbon generation. For this purpose, a tectonic setting in the Netherlands was selected that shows large-scale tectonic inversion, associated erosion, and later subsidence. On the basis of a 300-km (186-mi) two-dimensional section that crosses the main tectonic features of this setting, a structural model consisting of 21 paleosections was created. The results generated by the structural model show that the Late Cretaceous inversion affected the basins the most, whereas the erosion in the Jurassic had the strongest influence on the structural highs. This can be seen from the amount of erosion associated with these erosion phases. Using the structural model as input for the basin model allowed the temperature and maturity of the sediments to be calculated. A temperature profile at 2000-m (6562-ft) depth along the section shows that the present-day temperature distribution is also strongly influenced by the inversion. In the inverted basins, highly conductive layers, such as overcompacted sediments or salt, are closer to the surface, which results in higher temperatures than in the noninverted. Finally, the timing of hydrocarbon generation from the Posidonia Shale source rock was found to be related to the structural history within the basin. In strongly inverted parts of the basin, present-day burial is insufficient to restart hydrocarbon generation, but in less inverted parts, hydrocarbon generation resumed during the Tertiary.