Basin Modeling: New Horizons in Research and Applications
Temperature-time–based first-order kinetic models are currently used to predict hydrocarbon generation and maturation in basin modeling. Physical chemical theory, however, indicates that water pressure should exert significant control on the extent of these hydrocarbon generation and maturation reactions. We previously heated type II Kimmeridge Clay source rock in the range of 310 to 350°C at a water pressure of 500 bar to show that pressure retarded hydrocarbon generation. This study extended a previous study on hydrocarbon generation from the Kimmeridge Clay that investigated the effects of temperature in the range of 350 to 420°C at water pressures as much as 500 bar and for periods of 6, 12, and 24 hr. Although hydrocarbon generation reactions at temperatures of 420°C are controlled mostly by the high temperature, pressure is found to have a significant effect on the phase and the amounts of hydrocarbons generated.
In addition to hydrocarbon yields, this study also includes the effect of temperature, time, and pressure on maturation. Water pressure of 390 bar or higher retards the vitrinite reflectance by an average of ca. 0.3% Ro compared with the values obtained under low pressure hydrous conditions across the temperature range investigated. Temperature, pressure, and time all control the vitrinite reflectance. Therefore, models to predict hydrocarbon generation and maturation in geological basins must include pressure in the kinetic models used to predict the extent of these reactions.
Moho, Basin Dynamics, Salt Stock Family Development, and Hydrocarbon System Examples of the North German Basin Revisited by Applying Seismic Common Reflection Surface Processing
Published:January 01, 2012
Heinz-Juergen Brink, Dirk Gajewski, Mikhail Baykulov, Mi-Kyung Yoon, 2012. "Moho, Basin Dynamics, Salt Stock Family Development, and Hydrocarbon System Examples of the North German Basin Revisited by Applying Seismic Common Reflection Surface Processing", Basin Modeling: New Horizons in Research and Applications, Kenneth E. Peters, David J. Curry, Marek Kacewicz
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Proper two-dimensional and three-dimensional basin modeling relies on accurate seismic processing and interpretation, correct depth conversion of the identified sedimentary layers, reliable modeling of the thermal history of the basin, and understanding of the regional geodynamic setting. Seismic reprocessing using the common reflection surface (CRS) stack technique allows revised interpretation of the structural setting and the evolution of salt plugs in the area of the Glueckstadt Graben, located near the center of the North German Basin (NGB). Reprocessing of seismic data also provides an alternative view of the geodynamic origin of the basin. Reprocessing of data clearly demonstrates the...