G.S. Plumlee, 1997. "The Environmental Geology of Mineral Deposits", The Environmental Geochemistry of Mineral Deposits: Part A: Processes, Techniques, and Health Issues Part B: Case Studies and Research Topics, G.S. Plumlee, M.J. Logsdon, L.F. Filipek
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Mineral deposits are concentrations of metallic or other mineral commodities in the Earth's crust that result from a variety of complex geologic processes. The natural weathering and erosion of a mineral deposit at the Earth's surface disperses its constituents into the waters, soils, and sediments of its surrounding environment. There, the constituents may be taken up by plants and (or) organisms. The concentrations and chemical, mineralogical, or biological forms of metals and other constituents from a mineral deposit prior to mining in soils, waters, sediments, plants, and organisms are defined here to be the natural environmental signatures of the deposit.
Modern mining and mineral processing activities employ a wide variety of methods to prevent or minimize adverse environmental impacts (Ripley et al., 1996; Plumlee and Logsdon, 1999; references therein). However, if not carried out with appropriate mitigation and prevention practices (as was common in most historical operations), or as a result of accidental releases, mining and mineral processing can disperse potentially deleterious metals, other deposit constituents, and mineral processing chemicals or byproducts into the environment. Mining-related environmental signatures are defined here as the concentrations and chemical, mineralogical, or biological forms of these metals and chemicals prior to mitigation or remediation in mining and milling wastes, mine waters, mineral processing solutions and byproducts, and smelter emissions and byproducts.
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The Environmental Geochemistry of Mineral Deposits: Part A: Processes, Techniques, and Health Issues Part B: Case Studies and Research Topics
Environmental issues have become important, if not critical, factors in the success of proposed mining projects worldwide. In an ongoing and intense public debate about mining and its perceived environmental impacts, the mining industry points out that there are many examples of environmentally responsible mining currently being carried out (e.g., Todd and Struhsacker, 1997). The industry also emphasizes that the majority of mining-environmental problems facing society today are legacies from the past when environmental consequences of mining were poorly understood, not regulated, or viewed as secondary in importance to societal needs for the resources being extracted. On the other hand, environmental organizations (e.g., Mineral Policy Center, 1999) point to recent environmental problems, such as those stemming from open-pit gold mining at Summitville, Colorado, in the late 1980s (see Summitville summaries in Posey et al., 1995; Danielson and Alms, 1995; Williams, 1995; Plumlee, 1999), or those associated with a 1998 tailings dam collapse in Spain (van Geen and Chase, 1998), as an indication that environmental problems (whether accidental or resulting from inappropriate practices) can still occur in modern mining. Recent legislation imposing a moratorium on new mining in Wisconsin, and banning new mining in Montana using cyanide heap-leach extraction methods further underscore the seriousness of the debate and its implications for mineral resource extraction.
In this debate, one certainty exists: there will always be a need for mineral resources in developed and developing societies. Although recycling and substitution will help meet some of the worlds resource needs, mining will always be relied upon to meet the remaining needs. The challenge will be to continue to improve the ways in which mining is done so as to minimize its environmental effects.
The earth, engineering, and life sciences (which we group here under the term “earth-system sciences,” or ESS for short) provide an ample toolkit that can be drawn upon in the quest for environmentally friendly mineral resource development. The papers in this two-part volume provide many details on tools in the scientific toolkit, and how these tools can be used to better understand, anticipate, prevent, mitigate, and remediate the environmental effects of mining and mineral processing.
As with any toolkit, it is the professional’s responsibility to choose the tool(s) best suited to a specific job. By describing the tools now available, we do not mean to imply that all of these tools need even be considered at any given site, nor that