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Book Chapter

Basin Sedimentology and Stratigraphy-The Basin Fill

By
G. deV. Klein
G. deV. Klein
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Published:
January 01, 1991

Abstract

This chapter explores the changing concepts relevant to the sediment fills that accumulated in sedimentary basins. The goal is to explore the role of both intrinsic, mantle- driven, and extrinsic, solar-driven processes that influence the depositional history and preservation of the sedimentary rock record and to correlate these processes to the distribution of sediment-hosted ore deposits. The discussion starts with a review of paleogeography, followed by a review of clastic depositional systems and the origin of black shales. This is followed by a discussion of newer developments of stratigraphic organization, particularly of sequence stratigraphy, and closes with a section on global sedimentary cycles. Although the emphasis is on process, it must be remembered that these processes are critical to understanding the host environment and depositional controls on sedimentary-hosted ore deposits. Certain mineral deposits such as phosphates, evaporites, and coals can be correlated also to climatic change, and tectonic influences in their occurrences.

Paleogeography has undergone much change as a field of research over the past decade. In the past, it was considered more of an art and eventually paleogeography fell into disrepute. The original goals were to map ancient shorelines and contrast land areas from marine areas through geological time. Such past studies demonstrated that many ancient shorelines were oriented oblique to the boundaries of present-day continents rather than paralleling the margins of present continents. This finding was resolved later from plate tectonic reconstructions. Unfortunately, early geoscientists failed to correlate this important paleogeographic clue to its tectonic implications.

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Contents

Reviews in Economic Geology

Sedimentary and Diagenetic Mineral Deposits: A Basin Analysis Approach to Exploration

Eric R. Force
Eric R. Force
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J. James Eidel
J. James Eidel
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J. Barry Maynard
J. Barry Maynard
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Society of Economic Geologists
Volume
5
ISBN electronic:
9781629490120
Publication date:
January 01, 1991

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