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Those epithermal precious-metal deposits where ore was precipitated within 100-300 m of the earth's surface such that the direct interaction of hydrothermal fluids with the surface is a major cause of ore-mineral precipitation in the upper part of the system make up the subclass known as hot-spring-type deposits (Berger and Eimon, 1983; Berger, 1985). The deposits were emplaced as small veins, stockworks, and explosive breccias in association with non-marine volcanism, generally calc-alkaline in composition. Henley (1985b, this volume) and Hayba et al. (1985, this volume) prefer to not separate hot-spring deposits as a separate class or subtype of epithermal deposits. However, we have chosen to treat hot-spring related deposits separately because of the importance of hydrothermal eruptions and accompanying brecciation to near-surface ore deposition and exploration recognition criteria (Adams, 1985, this volume).

Active geothermal systems have long been thought to be modern analogs of epithermal systems (cf. White, 1955; Weissberg et al., 1979), but it wasn't until the recent discovery of the McLaughlin gold deposit in California and the publication of data on Round Mountain, Nevada (Berger and Tingley, 1980; Tingley and Berger, 1985) and Hasbrouck Mountain, Nevada (Silberman et al., 1979; Graney, 1984) that there became a widespread recognition among explorationists of the geological and geochemical characteristics and resource importance of fossil hot- spring systems. Subsequently, study in the Bodie, California mining district by P. Herrera and M. L. Silberman (Silberman and Berger, 1985, this volume) has further linked fossil hot-spring systems to the deeper-emplaced bonanza-type epithermal vein

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