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The Witwatersrand basin represents a 5- to 8-km-thick succession of dominantly clastic sediments deposited on continental basement prior to 2.7 Ma. Regional greenschist facies metamorphism affected every gold field, and higher grades were reached in the basin center and margins. Fluid activity during deformation enhanced strain accommodation and led to extensive alteration within the 1- to 2-m-thick reef packages of conglomerate, carbon seam, arenite, and shale.

Important associations of gold within the Witwatersrand basin are a widespread Au-Fe-S and/or Au-C chemical association and a strong relationship of economic gold mineralization to unconformity surfaces. Host-rock types for gold mineralization appear...

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