Studies on Compositions and Sources of Ore-Forming Fluids
The isotopic composition of lead was investigated in and around Kuroko deposits of the Hokuroku district, Japan. Although the ore leads of these deposits were found to occupy a narrow isotopic range, each ore deposit has a characteristic isotopic composition. Within a given ore deposit, black ore has a uniform isotopic composition but is significantly higher in radiogenic lead than yellow ore. The differences between ore types are, however, smaller than those between ore deposits. The volcanic host rocks are in general lower in radiogenic lead than the ores, whereas the deeper, older formations, in particular the Sasahata Formation and the Paleozoic basement, have more radiogenic lead than the ores.
On the basis of the isotopic distribution we conclude that a major part of the lead in the Kuroko deposits was derived from igneous, probably volcanic rocks with an uncertain but significant contribution coming from the underlying pre-Nishikurozawa formations. The ore fluids reached the Sasahata Formation and most likely also the Paleozoic basement. Each ore deposit within the district was formed by a local hydrothermal system. The difference in isotopic composition between the yellow and black ores reflects a shift in the proportions coming from the two major sources due to the temperature evolution of the hydrothermal system. The yellow ore seems to have a greater igneous rock lead component than does the black ore.
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The Kuroko and Related Volcanogenic Massive Sulfide Deposits
This paper consists of three parts. The first is an overview of the geologic history of the Green Tuff region where all Kuroko deposits occur. The second part presents a description of the stratigraphy and an interpretation of the structural and igneous history of the Hokuroku district, the most important Kuroko mining district. The third part is an analysis of the role of submarine calderas in Kuroko genesis.
The sequence and causes of the major geologic events that have occurred in Japan and its vicinity since the Cretaceous are interpreted as follows: (1) an active but shallow-dipping north-northwestward subduction of the Pacific plate under the Asian continent during a period from approximately 130 to 65 m.y. ago resulted in ilmenite series magmatism in the outer zone of Japan, then still a part of mainland Asia; (2) about 65 to 40 m.y. ago, the direction of the subducted Pacific plate changed to westward and the angle of subduction steepened, initiating back-arc spreading in the Japan basin province and migration of Japan away from the Asian mainland until about 30 m.y. ago; (3) during the period 65 to 30 m.y. ago, the basaltic crust created in the Japan basin province was subducted eastward under the Yamato Ridge province, resulting in calc-alkaline and magnetite series igneous activity in the inner zone of Japan; (4) about 25 m.y. ago, the first sea (proto-Japan Sea) was formed in the Japan basin province as a result of the eustatic rise of the sea following cessation of spreading there about 30 m.y. ago; (5) back-arc spreading was active in the Yamato basin province during the period between 25 and 5 m.y. ago, cansing bimodal volcanism and subsidence in the flanking Inner Honshu and Yamato Ridge provinces [the Hokuroku basin (i.e., a Kuroko-bearing basin), Niigata oil field basin, and Akita oil field basin were all fault-bounded, deep (>2,500 m) marine basins created by rapid subsidence of crustal blocks within a few million years around 17 m.y. ago, although Kuroko mineralization and the accumulation of organic matter were not synchronous]; and (6) the dip of the subducted Pacific plate returned to a shallow angle about 5 m.y. ago, causing the cessation of back-arc spreading and the initiation of subsidence of the Yamato basin province and uplift of the flanking Inner Japan and Yamato Ridge provinces. The Green Tuff activity is, therefore, synonymous with the tectonic and igneous activity that accompanied the formation of the Japan Sea and the Japanese islands during the period from ~65 m.y. ago to the present.