Seismic Stratigraphy and Geomorphology of Oligocene to Miocene Carbonate Buildups, Offshore Madura, Indonesia
H.W. Posamentier, Priscilla Laurin, Alex Warmath, Meirince Purnama, Dedan Drajat, 2010. "Seismic Stratigraphy and Geomorphology of Oligocene to Miocene Carbonate Buildups, Offshore Madura, Indonesia", Cenozoic Carbonate Systems of Australasia, William A. Morgan, Annette D. George, Paul M. (Mitch) Harris, Julie A. Kupecz, J. F. (Rick) Sarg
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A variety of carbonate landscapes have been imaged on 3D seismic data from the offshore area north of Madura Island, Indonesia. This paper is a case study based exclusively on seismic geomorphologic and seismic stratigraphic analyses. Carbonate buildups ranging from small patch reefs to platforms with outliers, and tide influenced elongate large patch reefs are observed within the Kujung 2, Kujung 1, and Wonocolo Formations. Clastic input characterized by low-angle clinoforms from the north-northwest and ubiquitous polygonal fracturing occurred between deposition of the Kujung 1 and the Wonocolo Formations. Subsequent to Wonocolo deposition, the basin gradually became subaerially exposed and was ultimately the site of densely spaced fluvial systems.
The small patch-reef buildups of the Kujung 2 range in size from less than 120 m up to 500 m in diameter. Across the platform these buildups are closely spaced, with less than 100 m separating isolated buildups. Each buildup is circular in plan view, with vertical relief of approximately 25–40 m. Hundreds of these features are observed within the 3D seismic volume.
Larger scale patch reefs of the Kujung 1 coalesced to form a northwest-southeast-trending platform. Individual buildups within the platform range from 600 m to 2 km in diameter and from 200 to 300 m in thickness. Smaller patch reefs ranging from 60 to 120 m in diameter are observed at the tops of these buildups. Large-scale buildups form off the platform and can be up to 400 m thick with diameters from 1 to 6.5 km. The Kujung 1 reefs are circular to elliptical in planform. Anastamosing channels up to 200 m deep and 650 m wide trend normal to the platform buildup and terminate at the buildup margin.
The Woncolo carbonate buildups generally are larger than the Kujung buildups and are characterized by internal clinoform architecture. These buildups are circular to elliptical in planform and range in size from 4 to 10 km wide and up to 20 km in length. They are separated from each other by tidal channels 1.2–2.5 km wide. The buildup tops are characterized by a complex network of channels, some up to 200 m wide.
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The Cenozoic carbonate systems of Australasia are the product of a diverse assortment of depositional and post-depositional processes, reflecting the interplay of eustasy, tectonics (both plate and local scale), climate, and evolutionary trends that influenced their initiation and development. These systems, which comprise both land-attached and isolated platforms, were initiated in a wide variety of tectonic settings (including rift, pas-sive margin, and arc-related) and under warm and cool-water conditions where, locally, siliciclastic input af-fected their development. The lithofacies, biofacies, growth morphology, diagenesis, and hydrocarbon reser-voir potential of these systems are products of these varying influences. The studies reported in this volume range from syntheses of tectonic and depositional factors influencing carbonate deposition and controls on reservoir formation and petroleum system development, to local studies from the South China Sea, Indonesia, Kalimantan, Malaysia, the Marion Plateau, the Philippines, Western Australia, and New Caledonia that incor-porate outcrop and subsurface data, including 3-D seismic imaging of carbonate platforms and facies, to un-derstand the interplay of factors affecting the development of these systems under widely differing circum-stances. This volume will be of importance to geoscientists interested in the variability of Cenozoic carbonate systems and the factors that controlled their formation, and to those wanting to understand the range of po-tential hydrocarbon reservoirs discovered in these carbonates and the events that led to favorable reservoir and trap development.