Controlling Factors of a Miocene Carbonate Platform: Implications for Platform Architecture and off-Platform Reservoirs (Luconia Province, Malaysia)
Valentina Zampetti, 2010. "Controlling Factors of a Miocene Carbonate Platform: Implications for Platform Architecture and off-Platform Reservoirs (Luconia Province, Malaysia)", Cenozoic Carbonate Systems of Australasia, William A. Morgan, Annette D. George, Paul M. (Mitch) Harris, Julie A. Kupecz, J. F. (Rick) Sarg
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A multidisciplinary approach was used to better reconstruct the architecture of a Miocene carbonate platform in the Luconia Province to provide a better understanding of the complexity of South-East Asian Cenozoic carbonate systems and their controlling factors. Platform growth began in the Late Oligocene to Early Miocene by coalescence of isolated patch reefs, and includes phases of progradation, backstepping and occasional collapse of platform flanks terminated by gradual submergence (drowning). Geometry was controlled not only by the balance between the rate of accommodation space and carbonate production, but also extrinsic factors such faulting and ocean currents that strongly influenced platform architecture. A 2-D regional study of the carbonate platforms in the Luconia province indicates that asymmetry of the platform margins is largely related to ocean currents rather than wind-shear over the platform top.
The structural relief created by block tilting has determined the location of the initial carbonate buildup. However, the platform was strongly affected by active strike-slip deformation during sedimentation that controls its shape and size. Syndepositional faulting has been interpreted to be responsible for the slope failure affecting the platform margins. Platform material is deposited as slide masses in the adjacent basin floor. Such deposits are likely to pass into debris-flow and turbidites deposits, i.e. breccias and carbonate sands, and can extend many kilometers across the basin floor. Because slumping did not affect only the studied platform but also the adjacent buildups, debris tongues are likely to interfinger. Faults are also interpreted to have acted as conduits for deep-seated fluids responsible for hydrothermal dissolution. The diagenetic history of the studied platform shows that much secondary porosity was created by dissolution during deep burial conditions, a process that may not be limited to the carbonate platforms but could also affect the slopes and intervening basins. Consequently, the carbonate slump, debris-flow and turbiditic deposits on the lower slopes and basin floors may well contain significant secondary porosity. These porous bodies may onlap other platform slopes, terminate there and become enveloped in clay-rich hemipelagic sediment. In addition, porous layers may establish fluid conduits between neighboring platforms if slides and turbidites from different platforms interfinger on the basin floor.