William E. Galloway, 1985. "Meandering Streams – Modern and Ancient", Recognition of Fluvial Depositional Systems and their Resource Potential, Romeo M. Flores, Frank G. Ethridge, Andrew D. Miall, William E. Galloway, Thomas D. Fouch
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A fluvial system consists of a skeleton of fluvial channel-fill facies and closely associated splay and levee facies within a matrix of floodbasin muds and organics (Fig. G-9). Fluvial systems display a wide range of variation in such basic parameters as average proportion of sand to mud and dimensions and geometry of sand bodies. Consequent-ly, they also vary in their capacity to transmit fluids. Further, within a fluvial system, systematic variations in these same parameters are observed to be both parallel and transverse to the sediment disper-sal axis.
Large fluvial complexes tend to produce integrated drainage net-works containing one or more trunk streams of the same type (i.e., meandering, braided, etc.) for large parts of the network. Deposi-tional characteristics of these trunk streams provide a logical basis for differentiating significantly different portions of a fluvial sys-tem. In a series of papers, Schumm (1960, 1972) has described rela-tionships in modern streams among sediment load transported by the channel, channel geometry, and sediment type deposited by the channel. These relationships can be quantified for modern river segments (Table G-3) and provide qualitative trends that can be applied in interpretation and classification of ancient fluvial depositional sys-tems.
The basis of SchuITn's classification lies in the empirical obser-vation of a fundamental correlation between the ratio of bed load to suspended load transported by a stream and the cross-sectional geometry of the channel (expressed as width/depth ratio). This relationship is independent of other variables, such as slope, discharge, or periodici-ty of flow. Thus, alluvial channels