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The Mutti and Ricci Lucchi (1972) model, which has been discussed in detail, including both facies and facies association, is only one of many models that have been published (Fig. 9-1). It has gained much acceptance in most ancient deep-sea fan systems. However, like most models, it does not apply everywhere or apply to all deep-marine clastic systems; it has been modified extensively since 1972 and is now known to be but one end-member of a spectrum of different types of models that are applicable to different types of deep-marine clastic systems. The Mutti and Ricci Lucchi (1972) model does provide, in my opinion, a well-documented and easily understood framework to which other models and proposed departures from the model can be compared. I will summarize herein the evaluation of fan models and concepts regarding the application of models.

Many workers, both in modern and ancient, attempted in the 1960s to model the sedimentation of deep-water clastics. Jacka et al. (1967, 1968) proposed a simple model that divided fans into proximal, intermediate, and distal parts (Fig. 10-1). Simple modifications of this system, such as the model by Nilsen and Simoni (1973) for the Butano Sandstone of northern California (Fig. 10-2) served only to emphasize the observation that the more proximal parts of deep-sea fans contained coarser sediment and larger channels compared to the more distal parts.

Nelson et al. (1970) studied the modern Astoria Fan system and provided a useful model for some studies because Astoria Fan clearly showed a

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