Cardium Formation 4. Review of Facies and Depositional Processes in the Southern Foothills and Plains, Alberta, Canada
Roger G. Walker, 1985. "Cardium Formation 4. Review of Facies and Depositional Processes in the Southern Foothills and Plains, Alberta, Canada", Shelf Sands and Sandstone Reservoirs, R. W. Tillman, D. J. P. Swift, R. G. Walker
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The Upper Cretaceous (Turonian) Cardium Formation (Figs. 1, 2) is a dominantly sandstone unit surrounded by marine shales of the Alberta (= Colorado) Group. It was deposited in the Western Interior Seaway in Alberta. In the subsurface, the Cardium is a major oil and gas reservoir (Table 1, on next page). It crops out abundantly in several thrust slices of the Rocky Mountain Foothills, between the U.S. Border in southern Alberta and Dawson Creek, B.C., a distance of about 800 km. The Alberta Group spans the Cenomanian to early Campanian, a period of about 15 million years (Fig. 2), and the Cardium belongs to the upper part of the Turonian, implying that deposition of the Cardium may have occurred in as little as one million years (Palmer, 1983).
In the Canadian Cordillera, there are two main clastic wedges, the late Jurassic-early Cretaceous Kootenay - Blairmore Assemblage, and the late Cretaceous - Paleocene Belly River - Paskapoo Assemblage. The Alberta Group presumably represents a period of relative tectonic quiescence between these two assemblages, with dominantly mudstones accumulating in the Alberta Basin.
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Shelf Sands and Sandstone Reservoirs
Shelf sandstone reservoirs are becoming a more and more common exploration target. What they are, how they may be characterized, and how they differ from shoreline and deep-water deposits in the subject of this publication. Shelf sands and sandstone reservoirs are among the more poorly understood types of sandstones. Continental, shoreline and deep water sandstones have all been studied in much more depth than have shelf sands and sandstones. However, during the last fifteen years significant progress has been made in understanding shelf sands and sandstones. Studies of modern sediments have allowed us to understand many of the depositional processes active on the shelf. This book is intended to be an up-to-date summary of shelf processes and products. The papers are intended for those new to shelf sands and sandstones as well as the shelf specialist.