Evolution of Sedimentary Basins from the Standpoint of Petroleum Origin and Accumulation – A Three-Dimensional Quantitative Basin Study
D. H. Welte, M. A. Yükler, 1987. "Evolution of Sedimentary Basins from the Standpoint of Petroleum Origin and Accumulation – A Three-Dimensional Quantitative Basin Study", How to Assess Maturation and Paleotemperatures, F. L. Staplin, W. G. Dow, C. W. D. Milner, D.I. O’Connor, S.A.J. Pocock, P. van Gijzel, D.H. Welte, M.A. Yükler
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Increasing demand and decreasing supply of hydrocarbon products require increased activities in petroleum exploration and production and especially improvement in exploration success. New oil and gas fields must be found and the explored areas should be reassessed for additional oil and/or gas pools.
The systematic search for petroleum accumulations started toward the end of the nineteenth century with the acceptance of the “anticlinal theory”. The vertical movement of petroleum in a static medium was considered. Studies on multiphase flow systems of gas, oil and water resulted in the “hydrodynamic theory” The search always focussed on the detection of suitable subsurface structures which possibly could host petroleum accumulations and geophysical methods have been developed and Improved to help locate these structures. However, the timing and the amount of petroleum generation were seldom considered. Later, particularly over the last 10 years, organic geochemical studies supplied the most needed chemical data on the generation, migration and accumulation of petroleum. Based on these data, new concepts were developed on the temperature-time dependence of petroleum generation and on the other complex processes of migration and accumulation.
These processes take place in a three-dimensional geological framework. Thus, a good understanding of this complex system is needed together with as much knowledge as possible on relevant chemical and physical processes in it. Due to the enormous amount of data required to describe this complex system the quantification of these processes was not possible without large and fast computer Therefore, only qualitative or semi-quantitative studies were made and
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How to Assess Maturation and Paleotemperatures
The application of organic matter studies in petroleum exploration had its start with the recognition of “rank” in coal. During the period of 1900–1925, both physical and chemical methods were developed for determination of the degree of low grade metamorphism of particulate organic materials, or palynodebris in coals and other sediments. Measurements of the relative metamorphism (maturation level) which are based on physical properties are generally quick, cheap, and qualitative to semiquantitative. Those based on chemical analyses are less rapid and tend to be more quantitative. Each method has advantages and disadvantages and they often are combined. Papers included in this course consider methods based on particulate organic matter, reflectance, fluorescence, and geochemistry. A method for integrating the data into a three-dimensional model is included.