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Miocene Patch Reefs from a Mediterranean Marginal Terrigenous Setting in Southwest Turkey

By
Anthony B. Hayward
Anthony B. Hayward
Executive Office, British Petroleum Exploration Co Ltd, D'Arcy House, 146 Queen Victoria Street, London, EC4 4BY, United Kingdom
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Alastair H. F. Robertson
Alastair H. F. Robertson
Executive Office, British Petroleum Exploration Co Ltd, D'Arcy House, 146 Queen Victoria Street, London, EC4 4BY, United Kingdom
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Terence P. Scoffin
Terence P. Scoffin
Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of Edinburgh, West Mains Road, Edinburgh, EH9 3JW, United Kingdom
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Published:
January 01, 1996

Abstract:

Small patch reefs, up to 8 m high and 40-50 m across, occur locally within Early Miocene terrigenous clastic sediments in the Kasaba basin of Southwest Turkey. The patch reefs are located within a prograding fan delta-type succession, interpreted as part of a foreland basin, underlain by a collapsed Mesozoic carbonate platform. The Miocene foreland basin developed in response to southeasterly thrusting of a thick pile of allochthonous thrust sheets, the Lycian Nappes, representing Tethyan continental margin and oceanic units. Well preserved, undeformed patch reefs are present in the Upper Miocene Kasaba Formation; poorly preserved patch reefs also occur in the Lower Miocene Kemer Formation.

The patch reefs developed directly on gravel and coarse sand fans, without pioneer coral development. The primary framework builders (Favites, Tarbellastraea, Montastraea, Porites) progressively changed in morphology upwards from dish-shaped, tabular corals, to large branching colonies. The patch reefs are asymmetrical in plan view, with more extensively developed off-reef facies on the landward flanks, where reworked reef-derived talus interfingers with terrigenous sediment. The primary coral framework was encrusted by a secondary framework of coralline algae and encrusting foraminifera. The reefs were modified by a variety of boring and grazing organisms (e.g., bivalves, sponges, bryozoa), producing abundant sediment that accumulated in areas between individual coral colonies and as off-reef flanking facies.

The patch reefs are interpreted to have formed on the abandoned, submarine toes of coastal alluvial fans, following switching in sediment supply and/or change in relative sea level. In Southwest Turkey, wave and storm activity in the microtidal Mediterranean Sea was mainly onshore, reworking reef-derived material landwards. The patch reefs were later buried by alluvial fans, overthrust during final emplacement of the Lycian Nappes, then exhumed following uplift and erosion during Plio-Quaternary time.

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Contents

SEPM Concepts in Sedimentology and Paleontology

Models for Carbonate Stratigraphy from Miocene Reef Complexes of Mediterranean Regions

Evan K. Franseen
Evan K. Franseen
Kansas Geological Survey, University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas
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Mateu Esteban
Mateu Esteban
Carbonates International Ltd, Esporles, Mallorca, Spain
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William C. Ward
William C. Ward
Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of New Orleans, Louisiana
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Jean-Marie Rouchy
Jean-Marie Rouchy
Laboratoire de Geologie, Museum National D'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France
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SEPM Society for Sedimentary Geology
Volume
5
ISBN electronic:
9781565762282
Publication date:
January 01, 1996

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