Rosignano Reef Complex (Messinian), Livornesi Mountains, Tuscany, Central Italy
Alessandro Bossio, Mateu Esteban, Renzo Mazzanti, Roberto Mazzei, Gianfranco Salvatorini, 1996. "Rosignano Reef Complex (Messinian), Livornesi Mountains, Tuscany, Central Italy", Models for Carbonate Stratigraphy from Miocene Reef Complexes of Mediterranean Regions, Evan K. Franseen, Mateu Esteban, William C. Ward, Jean-Marie Rouchy
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The Rosignano Reef Complex ("Calcare di Rosignano") consists of two fringing coral reef units with small lagoons, the Acquabona (lower) and the Castelnuovo (upper), separated by restricted marine carbonates and conglomerates and associated unconformities. The Acquabona reef is exclusively made-up of Porites; whereas, the overlying Castelnuovo reef shows a higher diversity (3-5 coral species). Large stromatolitic domes associated with marine conglomerates also are present in Castellina. Red algal mounds are common in association with coral reefs but never reach significant geometries to be described separately. Basinal sections consist of basal lacustrine deposits overlain by restricted marine marls with three evaporinc units evolving into another unit of marine to brackish-freshwater facies post-dating the Castelnuovo reef. Litho- and biostratigraphic correlation provides a complete framework for the northernmost coral-reef complex of the Upper Miocene of the Mediterranean.
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Miocene carbonates are intensively explored and locally exploited for hydrocarbons in parts of the Mediterranean regions. The outcrop models presented in this publication provide excellent analogs for the highly productive Miocene carbonates from Iran, Iraq and Gulf of Suez and for smaller reservoirs in other localities. Lessons learned in the outcrops of the Mediterranean regions are applicable as well to Miocene carbonate reservoirs. The Miocene outcrops in Mediterranean regions can serve as models for the relationships between carbonate reservoirs, pre-evaporitic basinal sediments, and overlying evaporites. Additionally, the Miocene carbonate rocks exposed in the Mediterranean regions serve as important analogs for ancient carbonate-rimmed basins with or without basinal evaporites.