Andrzej Pisera, 1996. "Miocene Reefs of the Paratethys: A Review", Models for Carbonate Stratigraphy from Miocene Reef Complexes of Mediterranean Regions, Evan K. Franseen, Mateu Esteban, William C. Ward, Jean-Marie Rouchy
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Following successive trasgressive events, two main reef episodes occurred during Miocene deposition in the Paratethys: the Badenian and Sarmatian. Small coral patch reefs and coral carpets are known from Austria, Hungary and Bulgaria from the Badenian. Algal-vermetid reefs form the main Badenian reef chain extending from Poland through the Ukraine to Moldavia. The Sarmatian reefs are composed of peloidal (thrombolitic) limestones with large amounts of early fibrous cement and varying admixture of serpulid tubes, sessile forams Nubecularia, monostromatic red algae and encrusting cheilostomatous bryozoans. The main Sarmatian reef chain occurs in the same paleogeographic position as the Badenian algal-vermetid reefs and follows the former shallow-water platform margin from Poland through the Ukraine, Moldavia to Bulgaria; these reefs occur also on the Crimea and in the Forecaucasian region. The development of the Badenian reefs had been controlled by sedimentation patterns (clastics supply) and climatic factors. The Sarmatian reefs composition had been controlled by the chemistry of the Sarmatian basin water.
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Miocene carbonates are intensively explored and locally exploited for hydrocarbons in parts of the Mediterranean regions. The outcrop models presented in this publication provide excellent analogs for the highly productive Miocene carbonates from Iran, Iraq and Gulf of Suez and for smaller reservoirs in other localities. Lessons learned in the outcrops of the Mediterranean regions are applicable as well to Miocene carbonate reservoirs. The Miocene outcrops in Mediterranean regions can serve as models for the relationships between carbonate reservoirs, pre-evaporitic basinal sediments, and overlying evaporites. Additionally, the Miocene carbonate rocks exposed in the Mediterranean regions serve as important analogs for ancient carbonate-rimmed basins with or without basinal evaporites.