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Following successive trasgressive events, two main reef episodes occurred during Miocene deposition in the Paratethys: the Badenian and Sarmatian. Small coral patch reefs and coral carpets are known from Austria, Hungary and Bulgaria from the Badenian. Algal-vermetid reefs form the main Badenian reef chain extending from Poland through the Ukraine to Moldavia. The Sarmatian reefs are composed of peloidal (thrombolitic) limestones with large amounts of early fibrous cement and varying admixture of serpulid tubes, sessile forams Nubecularia, monostromatic red algae and encrusting cheilostomatous bryozoans. The main Sarmatian reef chain occurs in the same paleogeographic position as the Badenian algal-vermetid reefs and follows the former shallow-water platform margin from Poland through the Ukraine, Moldavia to Bulgaria; these reefs occur also on the Crimea and in the Forecaucasian region. The development of the Badenian reefs had been controlled by sedimentation patterns (clastics supply) and climatic factors. The Sarmatian reefs composition had been controlled by the chemistry of the Sarmatian basin water.

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