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Book Chapter

Rifts as Denudation-Accumulation Systems: Concept, Models, and Examples

By
Matthias Hinderer
Matthias Hinderer
Institut für Angewandte Geowissenschaften, Darmstadt Technical University, Schnittsvahnstr. 9, 64287 Darmstadt, Germany
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Gerhard Einsele
Gerhard Einsele
Institut fiir Geologie und Palaontologie, University of Tubingen, Sigwartstr. 10, 72076 Tubingen, Germany
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Published:
January 01, 2002

Abstract

We present simplistic quantitative models of rift basin filling, applying the concept of denudation-accumulation systems. Initial rifts are commonly oversupplied and develop a fluvial sedimentary environment because of a high morphometric ratio and high denudation rates due to high relief. During an advanced stage of rift evolution, an increasing morphometric ratio and declining denudation rates often lead to undersupplied conditions with a lacustrine and/or marine sedimentary environment. Sedimentation is here very sensitive to climate fluctuations, and prediction of evaporative mineral formation needs to be modeled by a geochemical computer program. The usefulness of our concept is demonstrated by applications to the Qinghai rift basin, China, and the Turkana rift basin, East Africa. Their sediment filling was reconstructed since the Pliocene on the basis rates of extension, subsidence, and denudation derived from field observations. The climate-controlled short-term evolution during the late Quaternary was modeled using a geochemical computer program, and predictions of formation of evaporitic minerals are provided for three different climate scenarios. In an outlook, we emphasize the combination of the concept of denudation-accumulation systems with more sophisticated two-dimensional models based on sequence stratigraphy.

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Contents

SEPM Special Publication

Sedimentation in Continental Rifts

Robin W. Renaut
Robin W. Renaut
Department of Geological Sciences, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 5E2, Canada
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Gail M. Ashley
Gail M. Ashley
Department of Geological Sciences, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854-8066, U.S.A.
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SEPM Society for Sedimentary Geology
Volume
73
ISBN electronic:
9781565761957
Publication date:
January 01, 2002

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