Application of Hydraulics to the Study of Marine Turbidity Currents
Henry W. Menard, John C. Ludwick, 1951. "Application of Hydraulics to the Study of Marine Turbidity Currents", Turbidity Currents and the Transportaton of Coarse Sediments to Deep Water, J. L. Hough
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Hydraulic observations and theories which are applicable to marine turbidity currents are summarized and discussed. Emphasis is placed on (1) the probable density of marine turbidity currents, (2) the development of boundary waves, (3) the effect of a vertical density gradient in turbidity current, and (4) the development of interflows in a stratified ocean.
The behavior of marine turbidity currents in eroding, transporting, and depositing sediment is inferred.
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By 1951, recent studies of the sea floor were forcing drastic revisions of many of our basic geological concepts. The concept of vertical stability of the ocean basins was being challenged by the discovery of “guyots”; sea-mounts whose flat tops, now several thousand feet beneath the sea surface, give evidence of wave truncation. The belief that the deep ocean floor was essentially a flat, featureless plain was completely discredited by the discovery of fault scarps and mountain ranges comparable in size and complexity to any of those existing on the continents. One of the most challenging of recent discoveries is the finding of relatively coarse sediments (coarse silt and sand) in deep basins and on the open ocean floor at depths of several thousand feet and many miles from land. Solution of this problem was particularly difficult because the mere occurrence of these coarse sediments violates some of the traditional opinions of the day about processes operating in the oceans. This volume contains some of the first and best documented research in this area that opened a whole new way to interpret deep water deposition.