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The influence of two different basin-wide fluid flow systems can be recognized in the turbiditic sandstones of the Neogene Szolnok Formation. Lateral extensive and interconnected sheet-like turbidite lobe sandstones were subjected to penetration of meteoric waters during burial, as shown by the moderate-to-high secondary porosity, extensive feldspar leaching and associated kaolinite formation and replacement of detrital biotite by siderite rather than by chlorite. Mass balance calculations confirm that the amount of organic or carbonic acids released from evolving organic matter in the neighbouring shales is insufficient to explain the extent of feldspar dissolution observed in these sandstones. Furthermore, the stable isotopic composition of the carbonates and kaolinite suggests that isotopically light water flowed advectively through sandstones during early burial. In contrast, channel-filling turbidites encased in shales were affected only by compactional fluids. The observed mineral reactions can be explained by chemical transformations within the sandstone-shale couplets.

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