Graphic Correlation of Middle Ordovician Graptolite-Rich Shales, Southern Appalachians: Successful Application of the Technique to Apparently Inadequate Stratigraphic Sections
Published:January 01, 1995
Barbara J. Grubb, Stanley C. Finney, 1995. "Graphic Correlation of Middle Ordovician Graptolite-Rich Shales, Southern Appalachians: Successful Application of the Technique to Apparently Inadequate Stratigraphic Sections", Graphic Correlation, Keith Olin Mann, H. Richard Lane, Peter A. Scholle
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Middle Ordovician graplolite-rich shales exposed in the southern Appalachians provide an opportunity to apply graphic correlation to what appear to be inadequate data. The fact that the resulting composite standard (CS) is used successfully to address significant geologic problems demonstrates the effectiveness and versatility of the technique. The shales are so strongly diachronous that no single stratigraphic section spans the entire biostratigraphic interval represenled by the shales. The Standard Reference Section (SRS) included only a part of this interval. Therefore, many partially overlapping sections had to be used in the construction of the CS with each section extending the CS upwards or downwards. The completed CS contains the data from 22 stratigraphic sections, is composed of 89 composite standard units (CSUs), and ranges from the lower G. teretiusculus Zone to the C. bicornis Zone.
Once we established the CS, we used it as a basis for correlating the basal shale contact. This contact records the subsidence and migration of the foreland basin in which the shales were deposited, and its diachroneity can be expressed in terms of CSUs. With the biostratigraphic correlation of radiometric dates into the CS, the duration of the CSUs could be calibraled in terms of years, and so, too, could the age differences between sections of the diachronous basal shale contact. Because this contact recorded the migration of the basin axis, we used its age difference and the palinspastically restored distance between sections to calculate migration rates. Calculated rates indicate that the basin migrated 50 km cratonward at an average of 13 mm/yr. We were also able to demonstrate that the rate decreased from 40 mm/yr to 9 mm/yr before the migration completely cease4. The foreland basin migration and its subsequent deceleration and halt were produced by arc-continent convergence and collision. Our calculated rate of 40 mm/yr is comparable to modern rates of convergence.
We also calculated sediment accumulation rates for selected sections. To do so, we used the slope of the line of correlation (LOC) to determine the number of CSUs and their duration in years corresponding to the stratigraphic thickness of graptolite shales in the section compared to the CS. The rates of 1.8 to 2.8 cm/1000 yrs calculated for intervals of 1.3 to 2.8 Ma are within the ranges of those reported in other studies of pelagic environments.
Our rates of basin migration and sediment accumulation are virtually identical to rates determined from a variety of other methods, demonstrating the validity of a CS constructed from what appear to be inadequate biostratigraphic data.
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Graphic Correlation - An increasing number of geologists have begun to use graphic correlation because they find this robust technique provides finer stratigraphic resolution and better accuracy and precision than traditional zonations. This volume presents the graphic correlation method, recent methodological developments, and a number of technical papers exemplifying the technique. This collection of papers presents a summary of the technique as currently practiced and it should provide a starting point for those interested in high resolution stratigraphy through graphic correlation. Graphic correlation continues to develop and spread as more geologists use this important and innovative technique. Its potential is only beginning to become realized.