Authigenic Sedimentation in the Oceans
Published:January 01, 1972
1972. "Authigenic Sedimentation in the Oceans", Sedimentation in the World Ocean: With Emphasis On the Nature, Distribution and Behavior of Marine Suspensions, Alexander P. Lisitzin, Kelvin S. Rodolfo
Download citation file:
Inadequate study of oceanic sediments accounts for the dominance through the years of a hypothesis which suggests widespread authigenic sedimentation in the oceans. In particular, the deposition on the bottom of chemogenic siliceous material in the form of spherules and other formations, fine particulate calcium carbonate, and the formation of clay minerals on a large scale have been presupposed.
During the last few years, the list of verified authigenic minerals in bottom sediments has been increasingly reduced. It can be said that true authigenic sediments, composed mostly of mineral material which precipitate out of the water, are not encountered. Authigenic minerals are not major sediment forming components but instead are admixtures found in sediments in greater or smaller amounts.
Many authors place biogenous material such as carbonates and silicates into the category of authigenic minerals. However, biogenous matter is characteristically and genetically distinct, and its separation into a discrete group is most appropriate.
Among authigenic minerals the leading role is played by the material formed during diagenesis as well as during submarine weathering especially of ash material. In particular, iron-manganese nodules and microconcretions dealt with voluminously in the literature (Strakhov, 1965; Mero, 1964; Skornyakova and others, 1962; Skornyakova and Andryuschenko, 1964; Arrhenius and others, 1964; Lynn and Bonatti, 1965; Bonatti and Nayudu, 1965) as well as zeolites, mainly phillipsite, are widely distributed. Palagonite is also widespread, the hydration product of volcanic glass formed during the submarine eruptions of basaltic lava (Bonatti, 1963).
Figures & Tables
Sedimentation in the World Ocean: With Emphasis On the Nature, Distribution and Behavior of Marine Suspensions
The World Oceans covers the greater part of the earth’s surface and is 2.5 times as large as the area of land. Nearly 84 percent of the southern hemisphere is blanketed by the oceanic waters. The continents can be thought of as huge islands in the ocean. Therefore, the oceanic processes of matter and energy transformation are of global significance. Originally presented as a series of lectures by Alexander P. Lisitzin.