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Abstract

Eolian and volcanogenic pyroclastic materials are propagated in very similar ways. However, volcanogenic sedimentation, although obviously dependent on the eolian processes which are about to be discussed, deserves a separate chapter because of its volumetric and geochemical importance.

Until recently, ideas about the eolian transportive process was based exclusively on qualitative and random observations of eolian fallout on ships and on land. This information is summarized in papers by Fett (1958) and Yakubov (1946). During the last few decades fundamental new quantitative data have been obtained on the distribution of aerosols associated mainly with radioactive fallout. Methods have been developed for collecting and studying these aerosol tracers, and almost all nations have organized bureaus for monitoring fallout (Spurnyy and others, 1964; Selezneva, 1964; Styro, 1959). These new data permit the creation of new general theories on aerosol fallout which yield basic conclusions of sedimentologic value.

Aerosols are distributed in three radically different ways:

  1. Local fallout in the vicinity of the sources, exemplified by the ejection of smoke from industrial chimneys.

  2. Tropospheric fallout, the medium range transport of aerosols at heights of about 11 km.

  3. Stratospheric or global fallout, occasioned when materials such as volcanic products and desert dust attain heights of more than 11 km and are added to the stratospheric reservoir of our planet.

In local fallout, the dispersal of dust or pyroclastic material is influenced, apart from wind direction,

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